Night of the broken glass november 9 1938 260

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Night of the Broken Glass- November 9 1938 - 260 synagogues burned, 2,500 arrested, and 91 killed - the anti-semitic pogrom of Nov 9, 1938; a series of coordinated attacks on Jews andJewish property backed by Nazi government T-4 Program - Nazi euthanasia, 1939 – 1941- first Nazi mass murder program, mentally/physically disabled because they were viewed as a drain on society. First were targeted at hospitals and asylums. Was discontinued amid protests in Aug of 1941 but continued in secret. About 200k killed in Germany and occupied lands. - stands for Tiergarten 4, the address of the Berlin headquarters of the Nazi euthanasia program. Under the T-4 program, the Nazis began murdering mentally and physically handicapped people in 1939; officially stopped in Germany as a resultof public pressure (thru continued unofficially to 1945)Hitler-Stalin Pact- 23 Aug 1939- agree that they wont invade one another or attack one another and they will split Poland. Ended up not lasting very long after Poland was invaded by Germany. Lebensraum - German word for living space- a German term meaning “living space”; idea conceived before WWI and adopted by the Nazis, stating that Germans needed living space in the east and requiring that the racially inferior inhabitants living there should be killed, enslaved, or forced off the land.
Ghettos - an area segregated by race or religion; the term was coined after an area of Venice called the geto nuvo, where in 1516 Jews were segregated. Prior to implementation of the final solution in WWII, the Nazis concentrated Jews in ghettoes before deporting survivors to extermination campsKatyn Massacre - April/May 1940- Soviet crime where 20k were killed. They wanted to decapitate society and did so by killing military leaders, politicians, professors, and other political opponents. Vichy France - French state established after France was defeated by Germany in 1940. It collaborated with the Germans until the Allies liberated France in 1944. Operation Barbarossa- 22 June 1941- Nazi invasion of Soviet Union- breaks the truce of the Hitler/Stalin pact because Hitler was invading Soviet land. Nearly 3 million German soldiers waited amassed on the border. Known as the largest land invasion in history, 75% soldiers on foot or horse back. Hitler was extremely successful and took 3 million Soviet soldiers as POWs, 2.25 million of these died by Spring of 1942. Battle of Stalingrad - Aug 1942 – Feb 1943- each side brings 1 million to battle. 500,000 Soviets killed and 150,00 German/allies soldiers killed. Was a turning point in the war that was good for the Allies. The Final Solution - begins July/August of 1941- known as the Holocaust - Nazi soldiers ordered to shoot communists on the spot. There was never a direct order from Hitler to kill Jews. The initial order from Hitler to kill the communists turned into the practice of killing Jews overtime.

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