IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Caes compressed air energy storage cd cadmium ce

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CAES Compressed air energy storage Cd Cadmium Ce Cerium CHP Combined heat and power CO 2 Carbon dioxide Cr Chromium CSP Concentrated solar power DLC Double layer capacitor EES Electrical energy storage EMS Energy management system EV Electric vehicle FB Flow battery FES Flywheel energy storage H 2 Hydrogen HEV Hybrid electric vehicle HFB Hybrid flow battery HP High pressure LA Lead acid Li-ion Lithium ion (battery) LP Low pressure Me-air Metal-air NaS Sodium sulphur NiCd Nickel cadmium NiMH Nickel metal hydride PCM Phase change material PHS Pumped hydro storage PV Photovoltaic R&D Research and development RE Renewable energy/ies RES Renewable energy systems RFB Redox flow battery SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition SMES Superconducting magnetic energy storage SNG Synthetic natural gas UPS Uninterruptable power supply V2G Vehicle to grid V2H Vehicle to home (appliances) VRFB Vanadium redox flow battery Zi-air Zinc air Zn Zinc
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7 Companies, institutions and organizations IEA International Energy Agency IEC International Electrotechnical Commission Fraunhofer ISE Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems MSB (IEC) Market Strategy Board SEI Sumitomo Electric Industries SMB (IEC) Standardization Management Board TEPCO Tokyo Electric Power Company
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The roles of electrical energy storage technologies in electricity use SECTION 1
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S E C T I O N 1 The roles of electrical energy storage technologies in electricity use 10 1.1 Characteristics of electricity Two characteristics of electricity lead to issues in its use, and by the same token generate the market needs for EES. First, electricity is consumed at the same time as it is generated. The proper amount of electricity must always be provided to meet the varying demand. An imbalance between supply and demand will damage the stability and quality (voltage and frequency) of the power supply even when it does not lead to totally unsatisfied demand. The second characteristic is that the places where electricity is generated are usually located far from the locations where it is consumed 1 . Generators and consumers are connected through power grids and form a power system. In function of the locations and the quantities of power supply and demand, much power flow may happen to be concentrated into a specific transmission line and this may cause congestion. Since power lines are always needed, if a failure on a line occurs (because of congestion or any other reason) the supply of electricity will be interrupted; also because lines are always needed, supplying electricity to mobile applications is difficult. The following sections outline the issues caused by these characteristics and the consequent roles of EES. 1.2 Electricity and the roles of EES 1.2.1 High generation cost during peak- demand periods Power demand varies from time to time (see Figure 1-1), and the price of electricity changes accordingly. The price for electricity at peak- demand periods is higher and at off-peak periods lower. This is caused by differences in the cost of generation in each period.
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