o Pima (native american) living in america is more likely to be overweight than pima living in mexico Different life style o There is genetic potencity to overweight, but in order to bring it out, you also have to have poor diet o Brown fat More adapt to burning up the stored food componants (carbohydrates, fat, etc.) More brown fat -> more lean o Overweight -> not enough brown fat Mouse with less brown fat continue to shiver in fridge while mouse with more brown fat does not shiver after because it burns carbohydrate to generate heat Exercise converts white fat to brown fat! 8.2.5: - Efficient body -> low basal metaboilic rate -> doe not take much energy to survive o Low basal metabolic rate when young predicts obesity o Basal metabolic rate increase as weight gained o Therefore, basl metabolic rate is similar in obese and non-obese
- Setpoint theory o Body has the weight that it is happy with in mind (not consciously) Basal metabolic rate will increase untill it mathces the setpoint o How to reset the setpoint? Cut out calories somehow… But body resists to cutting back on calories - Consequence of reducing Calories o Reduce BMR To counter this, you need to exercise to increase BMR - Bob Adelman’s weight loss example o He was photographer (also photographed some special pictures of Martin Luther King) Lesson 2: Weight Control II 8.3.1: - What’s causing rise in obesity? o Food intake North American agriculture produces 3900 calories per person per day Soft drinks -> High in sugar Sucrose is disaccharide (glucose + fructose) Glucose is metabolized differently from fructose o Fructose energy is harder to use than glucose -> more fructose converted to fat o Fructose is bigger problem in weight gain - Dr. Robert Lusting (neuronendocrinologist at University of California) o Sugars are metabolized differently o Fructose is main contributer to weight gain because it does not blunt the appetite like other sugar - Endocannabinoids o THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) in marijuana resembles Anandamide Compound in marijuana that resembles compound in human body -> binds to same receptor Involved in ‘pleasure’ o Anandamide produced from dietary component Produced from linoleic acid (from poly unsaturated fats) Eating food high in linoleic acid gives us ‘pleasure’ Some oils are high in linoleic acid Ex, soy oil o Change soy oil to ‘high oleic acid soy oil’ Soy are genetically modifed to produce high oleic acid, and low linoleic acid component Oleic acid is mono unsaturated fats o Much less prone to oxidation o Better for frying , and good to be used in foods Originally to avoid trans fat, but the side affect is weight loss o Will not enjoy the food as much without linoleic acid that converts to anandamide 8.3.2:
- Obesogens -> chemcials that make us fat, increase appetite o Phthalates Added to plastics to make then soft and pliable, Coatings on pills, Make hoses, food packaging mateirals
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- Spring '11