Most humans are not easily infected by avian

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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Chapter 24 / Exercise 32
Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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11. Most humans are not easily infected by avian influenza. How, then, do DNA sequences from avian influenza become incorporated into human influenza? Solution: Pigs are infected by both avian and human influenza. The human and avian strains re-assort within pigs and the new viruses are then transmitted to humans. APPLICATION QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS Introduction *12. Suppose that you want to compare the species of bacteria found in a polluted stream with the species found in an unpolluted stream. Traditionally, bacteria have been identified by growing them in the laboratory and comparing their physical and biochemical properties. You recognize that you will be unable to culture most of the bacteria that reside in the streams. How might you go about identifying the species in the two streams without culturing them in the laboratory? Solution: Isolate DNA from water samples taken from the two streams. Sequence the DNA and identify the bacterial species based on differences in their DNA. Section 7.2 *13. John Smith is a pig farmer. For the past five years, Smith has been adding vitamins and low doses of antibiotics to his pig food; he says that these supplements enhance the growth of the pigs. Within the past year, however, several of his pigs died from infections of common bacteria, which failed to respond to large doses of antibiotics. Can you explain the increased rate of mortality due to infection in Smith’s pigs? What advice might you offer Smith to prevent this problem in the future? Solution: By using low doses of antibiotics for five years, Farmer Smith selected for bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotics. The doses used killed sensitive bacteria but not moderately sensitive or slightly resistant bacteria. As time passed, only resistant bacteria remained in his pigs because any sensitive bacteria were eliminated by the low doses of antibiotics.
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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Chapter 24 / Exercise 32
Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity
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Chapter Seven: Bacterial and Viral Genetic Systems 123 In the future, Farmer Smith can continue to use the vitamins, but should use the antibiotics only when a sick pig requires them. In this manner, he will not be selecting for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and the chances of successful treatment of his sick pigs will be greater. 14. In Figure 7.8, what do the red and blue parts of the DNA labeled by balloon 6 represent? Solution: The red part represents genes originally from the Y24 strain and the blue part represents genes that originated from the Y10 strain. *15. [Data Analysis Problem] Austin Taylor and Edward Adelberg isolated some new strains of Hfr cells that they then used to map several genes in E. coliby using interrupted conjugation (A. L. Taylor and E. A. Adelberg. 1960. Genetics45:1233–1243). In one experiment, they mixed cells of Hfr strain AB-312, which were xyl+mtl+mal+met+and sensitive to phage T6, with Fstrain AB-531, which was xylmtlmalmetand resistant to phage T6. The cells were allowed to undergo conjugation. At regular intervals, the researchers removed a sample of cells and

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