On health a increasing diversity b poverty lowest in

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on health a) Increasing diversity b) Poverty lowest in whites F. Health among blacks 1. Higher morbidity and mortality than whites a) Earlier onset, greater severity and disease progression/likelihood of comorbidity b) More impairment 2. Black-white gap in life expectancy is narrowing 3. Hypotheses for black-white disparities in hypertension a) Genetic*, physical exertion, associated disorder, psychological stress*, diet, and medical care hypothesis 4. Greater adversities a) Neighborhood disadvantage b) Discrimination c) Less access to healthcare G. Health among hispanics 1. Limited health-related data 2. Experience some health disadvantages compared to whites 3. Variation across ethnic groups 4. Hispanic paradox: despite having lower SES and less access to health care, they have higher life expectancies than whites a) Why the paradox? (1) Less smoking, better diets, and employment in occupations requiring physical activity (2) Might be exaggerated (a) Young age distribution of hispanics (b) Paradox may disappear over time 5. Barriers include language and lack of legal status H. Health among native americans 1. Health has dramatically improved over time 2. Still poor relative to other groups 3. Heart disease is leading cause of death I. Health among asians 1. Fastest growing minority group 2. Overall experience many health advantages 3. But variation across ethnicity
MODULE 5 I. Learning Objectives A. Compare different sociological theories of stress B. Understand psychological responses to stressful social conditions C. Describe social influences on the stress process D. Evaluate life events research II. Sociological Theories of Stress A. Stress 1. Heightened mind-body reaction to stimuli-inducing fear or anxiety 2. Typically starts with a situation we find threatening or burdensome a) Unpleasant working conditions, financial strain, job loss, divorce, migration, incarceration, death of spouse, discrimination B. Symbolic interaction theories of stress 1. Individual is creative, thinking organism able to choose behavior 2. Assumes all behavior is self-directed on the basis of common understandings 3. Importance of one’s perception 4. Looking-glass self (Cooley) a) We see ourselves as we think we appear b) Wee see in our imagination the other person’s judgement of ourselves c) As a result we experience self-feeling 5. Our perceptions of ourselves depend on others 6. Definition of situation (Thomas) a) Ability to cope related to socialization b) The same crisis will not produce the same effect for all c) Adjustment to a crisis depends on past 7. Life-as-theater approach (Goffman) a) Social interaction depends on information (1) A person’s appearance (2) Past experience with similar individuals (3) Social setting (4) Information a person communicates (words and actions) C. Other theories of stress: Durkheim 1. Influence of larger society a) Social processes and structural constraints integrate individuals into larger community b) Individuals constrained by laws and customs (social facts)

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