12. How might you test each of the following hypotheses? Suggest some problems that mightarise in each test due to the ceteris paribus (all-other-things-unchanged) problem and the fallacyof false cause.
13. Many models in physics and in chemistry assume the existence of a perfect vacuum (that is, aspace entirely empty of matter). Yet we know that a perfect vacuum cannot exist. Are suchmodels valid? Why are models based on assumptions that are essentially incorrect? 14. Suppose you were asked to test the proposition that publishing students’ teacher evaluationscauses grade inflation. What evidence might you want to consider? How would the inability tocarry out controlled experiments make your analysis more difficult? 15. Referring to the Case in Point “Baldness and Heart Disease,” explain the possible fallacy of false cause in concluding that baldness makes a person more likely to have heart disease. 16. In 2005 the Food and Drug Administration ordered that Vioxx and other popular drugs for treating the pain of arthritis be withdrawn from the market. The order resulted from a finding that people taking the drugs had an increased risk of cardiovascular problems. Some researchers criticized the government’s action, arguing that concluding that the drugs caused the cardiovascular problems represented an example of the fallacy of false cause. Can you think of any reason why this might be the case? 1.4 REVIEW AND PRACTICE • 23
Chapter 2: Confronting Scarcity: Choices in Production Start Up: An Attempt to Produce Safer Air Travel In the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, American taxpayers continue to give up a great deal of money, and airline passengers continue to give much of their time—and a great deal of their privacy—in an effort to ensure that other terrorists will not turn their flights into tragedies. The U.S. effort is run by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), a federal agency created in response to the 2001 attacks. TSA requirements became a bit more onerous after Richard Reid, an Englishman and member of al-Qaeda, tried in December of that same year to blow up an American Airlines flight with a bomb he had concealed in his shoe. Reid was unsuccessful, but passengers must now remove their shoes so TSA agents can check them for bombs. TSA restrictions became dramatically more stringent after Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, a jihadist from Nigeria, tried—again without success—to blow up a plane flying from Amsterdam to Detroit on Christmas Day, 2009, using a bomb concealed in his underwear. The subsequent tightening of TSA regulations, and the introduction of body- scan machines and “patdown inspections,” were quick to follow. Each new procedure took additional money and time and further reduced passenger privacy. It was a production choice that has created many irate passengers but
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- Summer '18