Purpose and goal of the theory the central purpose of

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PURPOSE AND GOAL OF THE THEORY The central purpose of the theory is to discover and explain diverse and universal culturally based care factors influencing the health, well-being, illness, or death of indi- viduals or groups. The purpose and goal of the theory is to use research findings to provide culturally congruent, safe, and meaningful care to clients of diverse or similar cultures. The three modes for congruent care, decisions, and actions pro- posed in the theory are predicted to lead to health and well- being, or to face illness and death. 190 JOURNAL OF TRANSCULTURAL NURSING / JULY 2002
Definition of Terms Due to space limitations, the definition of terms can be studied in other sources, which are cited in the reference list at the end of this article. ASSUMPTIVE PREMISES OF THE THEORY Due to restricted space, only a few theoretical premises (or “givens”) are presented as examples, with others found in author’s theory references (Leininger, 1991, 1997). Leininger / CULTURE CARE THEORY 191 FIGURE 1. Leininger’s Sunrise Model to Depict Dimensions of the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality.
1. Care is the essence of nursing and a distinct, dominant, cen- tral, and unifying focus. 2. Culturally based care (caring) is essential for well-being, health, growth, survival, and in facing handicaps or death. 3. Culturally based care is the most comprehensive, holistic, and particularistic means to know, explain, interpret, and predict beneficial congruent care practices. 4. Culturally based caring is essential to curing and healing, as there can be no curing without caring, although caring can oc- cur without curing. 5. Culture care concepts, meanings, expressions, patterns, pro- cesses, and structural forms vary transculturally, with diversi- ties (differences) and some universalities (commonalties). Four major tenets were formulated to systematically examine the theory with the researcher’s stated domain of inquiry (DOI) and the ethnonursing method. An example of a DOI would be “the study of care meanings, values, and expressions of Mexican rural families with cancer.” Every word in this DOI is studied in-depth using the four theory ten- ets, which are (a) culturally based care has diversities (differ- ences or variabilities) and some universal (common) features; (b) worldview, cultural, and social structure factors and others in the Sunrise Model influence care outcomes related to cul- turally congruent care; (c) generic emic (lay, folk, or indige- nous) practices and professional etic nursing practices influ- ence care practice outcomes; (d) the three predicted theoreti- cal modes for transcultural care actions and decisions are, namely, culture care preservation and/or maintenance, cul- ture care accommodation and/or negotiation, and culture care repatterning and/or restructuring to provide culturally con- gruent and beneficial care. Besides the Sunrise Model, other ethnonursing enablers are used to rigorously examine the the- ory tenets.

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