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3.The Dustbowl – made Depression for farms even worse. There was a severe drought in the plains beginning in 1930A)Dust storms / “Black Blizzards” – when the dry soil would be kicked up by the wind and cause major dust storms. It caused red&brown snow to fall in the colder states.B)Dustbowl Migration – people who left the plains to get away from the drought and migrated in huge numbers.I.“Okies” – what the dustbowl migrants were nicknamed.C)Cultural Impact
I.The Grapes of Wrath – written by John Steinbeck, about a family who left plains to improve their life. Showed the plight and problems of these refugees. II.Woody Guthrie – folk singers, was an active democrat and was influenced by his father. He incorporated politics into his folk songs.III.Dorothy Lange – photographer who documented the Great Depression with photographs. She documented the migration of “Okies” with pictures. Terms:Margin – buying stocks on lent moneyMellon Tax Cuts – cut taxes greatly to increase revenues, some think this lead to the depression.Smoot-Hawley Tariff – effective tax rate of 60% on thousands of productsBlack Tuesday – the day the stock market crashed The Crash of 1929 – lead to the 12 year long Great Depression“This Land is Your Land” – a song written by Woody Guthrie, had a radical line, “is this land made for you and me?”St. Louis Hooverville – largest hooverville that was made out of junk, shanty houses, had churches and mayors. John Steinbeck – wrote Grapes of WrathMigrant Mother – most popular taken by Dorothea LangeInstallment Plans – helped people who didn’t have the money to pay for things by lending it to them. Basically it postponed the day you had to pay for a product. “Pay as you go”xxii.The Election of 1932 – signaled broader political changes, at the peak of the Great Depression it took place.q.Herbert Hoover – blamed largely for Depression. He believed that charity and welfare should be voluntary, less government intervention – Laissez Faire politics, he did promote programs to reverse course of depression.r.Franklin D. Roosevelt – advocate of government intervention in the economy. He was the heir to legacy of Teddy Roosevelt. He won almost complete sweep.14.Class Conflict – politics began taking on a more class role. Democrats – working class, Republicans – wealthy
15.New Deal Coalition – illustrates how the democratic party dominated politics. Groups coming together. xxiii.The New Deal – FDR’s policy of many ideas and organizations to help end the Great Depression and to promote economic balance.xxix.The Brain Trust – members who informed Roosevelt and advised the president on the economy, educated men who influenced policy makers.