A similar alternation can be heard in america from

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A similar alternation can be heard in America, from Leonard Bernstein’s West Side Story, studied in Part VI, “The Twentieth Century and Beyond,” in Section 20, “Music for Stage and Screen.”Mood and Emotional ExpressionGregorian chant conveys a calm, otherworldly, spiritual quality.Medieval composers were relatively uninterested in expressing the emotions of a text.RhythmGregorian chant rhythm is flexible, without meter, and has little sense of beat; as a result, the music has a floating quality.Notre Dame composers developed the first instances of western notation that indicated specific pitches as well as measured rhythms with definite time values.
Dances have a regular, clearly defined beat.In ars nova, the beat could be subdivided into two as well as three, and syncopation became an important rhythmic practice.Tone ColorOccasionally vocal or instrumental music will be accompanied by a drone.Melody and HarmonyFor centuries, medieval composers based original compositions on chant melodies.Chant melodies of the Middle Ages often move by step within a narrow range.Medieval music theorists considered the interval of a third a dissonance; thus, the music occasionally can sound hollow to us.
Music is based on church modes rather than major and minor scales.TextureFor hundreds of years, western music was basically monophonic.Sometime between 700 and 900 CE, a second line of music was added to Gregorian chant, creating organum.Starting around 1200, composers wrote polyphonic music in three- and four-voice parts.Performance PracticeWe know very little about how medieval music sounded and how it was performed.Music manuscripts do not indicate tempo, dynamics, or names of instruments.Much music was passed down for generations through oral tradition and memorization because music notation was either nonexistent or primitive.Music in Society—Renaissance
Musical patronage gradually shifted from the church to the courts.Music was an important leisure activity, and every educated person was expected to be trained in music.As in the Middle Ages, vocal music was more important than instrumental music; however, instrumental music increased in importance.The invention of printing during the Renaissance widened the circulation of music.Secular music and dance continued to flourish.Important Style Features—RenaissanceMood and Emotional ExpressionRenaissance composers wrote vocal music to enhance the meaning and emotion of a text.Renaissance madrigals express a wide range of emotions and imagery through word painting.
Secular music contains more rapid shifts of mood than sacred music.RhythmRhythm is more of a gentle flow than a sharply defined beat, particularly in a cappella choral music. Each line of music has great rhythmic independence.

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