# The output voltage from the differentiator circuit is

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The output voltage from the differentiator circuit is given by the equation: Vout = RC dVin dt ("Operational Amplifier | Op Amp Basics and Applications", 2020) Where R is the resistor connected to the feedback path and C is the capacitor connected in the input path. A digital to analog converter is an operational amplifier circuit that converts a digital input voltage into an analog output. The conversion depends on the values if the resistors connected to the input side. The output is usually a decimal equivalent of input voltage multiplied by reference voltage. Experimental procedure i) The comparator circuit was constructed in MULTISIM software and powered by 1Vpp input signal @1kHz. Input and output voltage signals were plotted on a Tektronix oscilloscope. The input signal voltage from the generator was changed from 1Vpp to 0.1Vpp. Non-inverting terminal was then grounded and the input signal voltage at the inverting input. Input and output voltage waveforms were then taken form the oscilloscope ii) Next, the buffer was then constructed in MULTISIM and 1Vpp sinusoidal voltage applied to the non-inverting terminal. Input and output voltage waveforms were then shown on the oscilloscope. iii) Next, Non-inverting op – amp was then built in MULTISIM and a 1Vpp sinusoidal signal applied to its non-inverting input. Input and output voltage waveforms were then displayed on the oscilloscope. iv) Next, Inverting op – amp was built in MULTISIM and a 1Vpp sinusoidal signal applied to its inverting input. Input and output voltage waveforms were then displayed on the oscilloscope. v) Next, differentiator and integrator circuits were built in MULTISIM. A sinusoidal and a square waveform was applied on the inputs of the integrator and oscilloscope used to display both input and output waveforms. A sinusoidal and triangular waveform was then applied at the inputs of the differentiator. The oscilloscope was used to display both input and output voltage waveforms. vi) A circuit of digital to analogue conversion (DAC) and different input combinations applied on the circuit. The output voltage for the different input combinations were measured and recorded.
Operational amplifiers 5 Results The circuit for the comparator circuit was constructed in MULTISIM software as shown in the figure below: VCC 10V VEE -10V XFG1 XSC1 Tektronix 1 2 3 4 T G P Figure 1: An illustration of how the Comparator circuit was built in MULTISIM software Upon simulation of the comparator circuit, the results obtained are as follows: Figure 2: An illustration of Simulation results for comparator with 1Vpp sinusoidal applied at the input
Operational amplifiers 6 Figure 3: An illustration of Simulation results for comparator with 0.1Vpp sinusoidal applied to the input Figure 4: An illustration of Simulation results for comparator with input signal applied to its inverting input The voltage follower was then built as shown:
Operational amplifiers 7 VCC 10V VEE -10V XFG1 XSC1 Tektronix 1 2 3 4 T G P Figure 5: Voltage follower circuit built in MULTISM software Upon simulation, the results obtained were as follows: Figure 6: An illustration of Simulation results for voltage follower op – amp with 1Vpp sinusoidal applied at input
Operational amplifiers 8

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