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Population pyramid/profile A graph showing the age and sex composition of a population. Prevention, mitigation and preparedness Prevention and mitigation are actions taken in advance to decrease or eliminate the impact of a hazardous event on people, communities and the environment, by actions including, for example, lessening the hazard and reducing the vulnerability of a community. Preparedness refers to actions taken to create and maintain the capacity of communities to respond to, and recover from, natural disasters, through measures like planning, community education, information management, communications and warning systems. Primary sources Sources that are unprocessed, original materials collected by the student, for example, field notes from observations, measurements taken from experiments, or responses received from a survey or questionnaire. Qualitative methods Explanatory and interpretive methods, for example, participant observation, focus group discussion or interviews, which are used to gather qualitative data (information that can only be described, such as people’s perceptions of environmental quality). Quantitative methods Statistical and other methods used to analyse quantitative data (information that can be expressed in numbers, for example, crime rates for local government areas). Region A region is an area in which the various parts have something in common that distinguishes them from neighbouring regions. Regions can be divisions of a nation, for example, the Wheat belt of Western Australia, or larger than a nation, for example, Southeast Asia or a climatic zone. The latter are called ‘world regions’ in the curriculum. Relative location Location relative to other places, for example, the distance of a town from other towns. Relative location has a stronger influence on the human characteristics of places than absolute location, as demonstrated by the advantages of closeness to suppliers, finance, information and markets for businesses, and to education and employment opportunities for individuals. Remote Places distant from major population and economic centres. Representation Representing geographical information in a visual form, for example, a graph, map, image, field-sketch or a multilayered map. Satellite image Digital images captured by satellites above the Earth’s surface, for example, those combined in Google Earth. They can be processed to measure specific aspects of the land surface, for example, areas of water
Geography K–10 Draft Syllabus for Consultation July – August 2014 127 or cropland. Scale The concept of scale is used to analyse phenomena and look for explanations at different spatial levels, from the personal to the local, regional, national and global. Different factors can be involved in explaining phenomena at different scales, for example, in studies of vegetation, climate is the main factor at the global scale but soil and drainage may be the main factors at the local scale. Deciding on the appropriate scale for an inquiry is therefore important. Scale is also involved when geographers look for explanations or outcomes at different levels. Local events can have global outcomes, for example, the effects of