LEVELUBUNTU COMMUNITY LEVELGoods & Services © 2013 Global Journals Inc. (US)35Global Journal of Management and Business Research Volume XIII Issue V Version IY2013ear()AShaping Business Ethics and Corporate Governance: an Inclusive African Ubuntu PhilosophyThe essence of the UbaleFramework is that of relationships and networks in respect of all stakeholders that are engaged in the creation of wealth for an organisation. Such stakeholder relationships and net-works resonate with the foundations of the African Ubuntuphilosophy where all members are regarded as
one community or society. The above UbaleFramework is founded on the recognition of the interconnectedness of and relationships between corporate activities and all stakeholders. VIII.ResearchDesign andMethodology a)Exploratory ResearchInitially, some exploratory research, as recommended by Babbieand Mouton (2007) was conducted in Malawi to ascertain the general framework on corporate governance issues in African companies. During this exploratory study, 112 large Malawian companies were visited through questionnaires and interviews with business executives. The results indicated that, in general, Southern African corporate governance approach inclines more on the inclusive regime rather than an exclusive one. b)Secondary ResearchFurther, a secondary research through a desk review was done of documents collected from different sources, including stock exchanges, registrars of companies, companies’ published annual reports, orga-nisational constitutions, national statistical offices, government publications, internet, university public-cations, chambers of commerce and industry from different countries in Southern Africa. Some of the documents reviewed include Malawi’s Companies Act (Malawi Government, 1986), the South African Companies Act, No. 61 of 1973 (South Africa, 1973), Malawi’s Capital MarketDevelopment Act (Malawi Government, 1990) and the South African Stock Exchange Control Act, No. 1 of 1985 (South Africa, 1985). c)PrimaryResearchTheprimary data collection method was a field survey methodology, using correlationalresearch design. A cross-sectional (correlational) research design studies some phenomenon by investigating different constructs at a single time (Babbie and Mouton, 2007; Welman et al., 2005).During this study, a Likert scale survey questionnaire was used as the main instrument to gather quantitative data. The questionnaire was design-ned around a range of formulated statements as a means to explore respondents’ perceptions of a wide range of business ethics and corporate governance issues as applied in Africa. A Likert scale provides a measurement technique based on standardised res-ponse categories (Babbie and Mouton, 2007). The researchers interviewed people who have vast knowledge and experience of corporate governance issues, as recommended by Selltiz and Cook (1964).
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