economy has not been spared from these barriers to woman’s participation in the economy.Studies, such as those conducted by Mandipaka (2014) and Botha (2006), found that manyof the women entrepreneurs in their studies considered that the challenges they were facingstood in the way of the success of their business and profitability. Mandipaka (2014) shedmore light on stereotyping as a factor in hindering women entrepreneurs, as one of thechallenges that women entrepreneurs continue to suffer. Stereotyping continues toovershadow the significant progress that has been made by women entrepreneurs over theprevious years. The government of South Africa has been unable to solve the socio-economic issues of high unemployment and poverty reduction because of the constraintsthat hamper entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurship as the current study is exploring(Agbenyegah,2013).2.5.1Categories of Challenges Faced by Women EntrepreneursThe literature reviewed, including studies conducted on woman entrepreneurs in variousgeographical, economic, and social contexts, identifies several challenges faced by womenentrepreneurs. Some of the challenges they face have been categorised by a range ofauthors (Valla, 2001; Aslam, Latif & Aslam, M, 2013; Mboweni, 2015). These includecultural/religious customs, and socio-cultural factors, social and personal problems, technicaland financial problems, entrepreneurial/business related factors, and infrastructural,educational and occupational, role barriers, as well as behavioural barriers. Table 2.1.provides a summary of the thematic analysis of the challenges faced by womenentrepreneurs, as identified in the literature reviewed. These challenges have been classifiedinto nine categories: entrepreneurial factors, personal factors, technical factors, socio-cultural, infrastructural, educational and occupational factors, and role and behaviouralbarriers (Valla, 2001; Aslam et al., 2013). Based on studies undertaken in South Africa, theabove-mentioned nine categories were consolidated into four categories.
Table 2.1: Thematic analysis of women entrepreneurship challengesAuthorYearChallengesContext/ SampleMboweni2015oFinanceoMarketoGenderoFamily supportoUrbanoSouth Africaon = 126Vinay, Divya & Singh2015oFinance and marketsoManagement problemsounawarenessofsupportandincentivesomobility constraintoaccess to policy makersostatistical invisibilityoDeveloping countryoIndiaon=265Chinomona & Muzariri2015owork-life balanceotraining and educationofinance and market limitationsoSouth AfricaoUrbanon=30Summaira, Madiha & Mahummad2013osecuring financeopersonal problemsofamily/work role conflictolack of entrepreneurial skillsoPakistanon=120Wube2010oPremises/landoFinance and trainingoConflicting gender rolesoSocial acceptanceoPakistanoUrban areaon=203Botha2006ofinanceogender discrimination and biasolack of support structuresoSouth AfricaoUrbanon=180Valla2001oSocialisationoMarket and financeoFamily-work conflicting rolesoSouth AfricaoUrbanon=225These categorises are elaborated on and discussed in the following sections.