Studies such as those conducted by Mandipaka 2014 and Botha 2006 found that

Studies such as those conducted by mandipaka 2014 and

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economy has not been spared from these barriers to woman’s participation in the economy. Studies, such as those conducted by Mandipaka (2014) and Botha (2006), found that many of the women entrepreneurs in their studies considered that the challenges they were facing stood in the way of the success of their business and profitability. Mandipaka (2014) shed more light on stereotyping as a factor in hindering women entrepreneurs, as one of the challenges that women entrepreneurs continue to suffer. Stereotyping continues to overshadow the significant progress that has been made by women entrepreneurs over the previous years. The government of South Africa has been unable to solve the socio- economic issues of high unemployment and poverty reduction because of the constraints that hamper entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurship as the current study is exploring ( Agbenyegah, 2013 ). 2.5.1 Categories of Challenges Faced by Women Entrepreneurs The literature reviewed, including studies conducted on woman entrepreneurs in various geographical, economic, and social contexts, identifies several challenges faced by women entrepreneurs. Some of the challenges they face have been categorised by a range of authors (Valla, 2001; Aslam, Latif & Aslam, M, 2013; Mboweni, 2015). These include cultural/religious customs, and socio-cultural factors, social and personal problems, technical and financial problems, entrepreneurial/business related factors, and infrastructural, educational and occupational, role barriers, as well as behavioural barriers. Table 2.1. provides a summary of the thematic analysis of the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs, as identified in the literature reviewed. These challenges have been classified into nine categories: entrepreneurial factors, personal factors, technical factors, socio- cultural, infrastructural, educational and occupational factors, and role and behavioural barriers ( Valla, 2001; Aslam et al., 2013 ). Based on studies undertaken in South Africa, the above-mentioned nine categories were consolidated into four categories.
Table 2.1: Thematic analysis of women entrepreneurship challenges Author Year Challenges Context/ Sample Mboweni 2015 o Finance o Market o Gender o Family support o Urban o South Africa o n = 126 Vinay, Divya & Singh 2015 o Finance and markets o Management problems o unawareness of support and incentives o mobility constraint o access to policy makers o statistical invisibility o Developing country o India o n=265 Chinomona & Muzariri 2015 o work-life balance o training and education o finance and market limitations o South Africa o Urban o n=30 Summaira, Madiha & Mahummad 2013 o securing finance o personal problems o family/work role conflict o lack of entrepreneurial skills o Pakistan o n=120 Wube 2010 o Premises/land o Finance and training o Conflicting gender roles o Social acceptance o Pakistan o Urban area o n=203 Botha 2006 o finance o gender discrimination and bias o lack of support structures o South Africa o Urban o n=180 Valla 2001 o Socialisation o Market and finance o Family-work conflicting roles o South Africa o Urban o n=225 These categorises are elaborated on and discussed in the following sections.

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