Other it produces enormous tension that manifests

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other it produces enormous tension that manifests itself in all sorts of pathologies within the blackcommunity. As Du Bois (1?03/1996:7) puts it, "this seeking to present two unreconciledideals, has wrought sad havoc with the courage and faith and deeds" of Negro Americans.Given the existence of this double consciousness, Du Bois (1903/1996:6) argues thatthe American Negro longs "to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his two selfinto a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older [Negro American] selvesto be lost.. . . He certainly wishes to make it possible for a mull to be both aNegro and an American, without being used and spit his Sellouts, without having the doors ofopportunity closed roughly in his face."Du Bois's thinking on double consciousness resinates with a number of classical andcontemporary theoretical ideas. For example, Simmel’s "stranger." (see Chapter 8) would likelysuffer from double consciousness and black Americans can be thought of as strangers withinwhite-dominated American society. More contemporarily, Patricia Hill Collins’s (1990; 1998)work on “the outsider within" has strong resemblance to Du Bois's thinking on doubleconsciousness. The point is that although Du Bois was largely ignored by the mainstream withinsociology in general, and sociological theory in particular, and he generally ignored it, his ideasdo resonate with a number of strands of theory and empirical research within the mainstream).ECONOMICSDu Bois devoted a great deal of attention to economic factors and although he discussedmany other factors (social, political, and go on), in the end he usually came backto economics asthe most basic and most important factor. For example: "The main quate economic foundation"(Du Hois, 1935/1998:565). He tied this position into the kind of economic determinism oftenassociated with Marx: "I believe in the dictum of Karl Marx, that the economic foundation of anation is widely decisive for its politics, its art and its culture" (Du Bois, 1944/1995:610). AsLemert (2000:357) puts it, "Du Bois's most distinctive theoretical conviction was that race neverstands alone, apart from economic realities. . . . Race makes little sense apart from class."However, although Du Bois recognized the ultimate importance of economic factors, he washighly critical of the attention accorded, and the amount or time and energy devoted, to thestriving for economic success. At first, he criticized white America for its fetishization of money:for its overarching materialism. Later, he criticized the United States as a whole for this. Hethought there were more important, "higher," things in life that had been lost sight of by whiteAmericans. In contrast, Negroes had not yet accorded as much importance to material success(perhaps, at least in part, because they had not been given a real opportunity to achieve i t ) andDu Bois hoped they never would attach too much importance to material success. This is part ofthe reason why Du Bois argued so often and so determinedly for the importance of education,

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