For example from Waltz to Posen almost all Realists have a place for technology

For example from waltz to posen almost all realists

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major theoretical debates reveals the ubiquity of technological causality. For example, from Waltz to Posen, almost all Realists have a place for technology in their explanations of international politics . At the very least, they describe it as an essential part of the distribution of material capabilities across nations, or a n indirect source of military doctrine . And for some, like Gilpin quoted above, technology is the very cornerstone of great power domination , and its transfer the main vehicle by which war and change occur in world politics. Jervis tells us that the balance of offensive and defensive military tech nology affects the incentives for war . Walt agrees, arguing that tech nological change can alter a state’s aggregate power, and thereby affect both alliance formation and the international balance of threats . Liberals are less directly concerned with technological change, but they must admit that by raising or lowering the costs of using force, technological progress affects the rational attractiveness of international cooperation and regimes. Technology also lowers information & transactions costs and thus increases the applicability of international institutions, a cornerstone of Liberal IR theory. And in fostering flows of trade, finance, and information, technological change can lead to Keohane’s interdependence or Thomas Friedman et al’s globalization. Meanwhile, over at the “third debate”, Constructivists cover the causal spectrum on the issue, from Katzenstein’s “cultural norms” which shape security concerns and thereby affect technological innovation; to Wendt’s “stripped down technological determinism” in which technology
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inevitably drives nations to form a world state. However most Constructivists seem to favor Wendt, arguing that new technology changes people’s identities within society, and sometimes even creates new cross- national constituencies, thereby affecting international politics . Of course, Marxists tend to see technology as determining all social relations and the entire course of history, though they describe mankind’s major fault lines as running between economic classes rather than nation-states. Finally, Buzan & Little remind us that without advances in the technologies of transportation, communication, production, and war, international systems would not exist in the first place. Great power war causes extinction . Dyer 4 – Gwynne Dyer December 30, 2004 Toronto Star "The End of War Our Task Over the Next Few Years is to Transform the World of Independent States into a Genuine Global Village" - 05.htm l, NG War is deeply embedded in our history and our culture, probably since before we were even fully human, but weaning ourselves away from it should not be a bigger mountain to climb than some of the other changes we have already made in the way we live, given the right incentives. And we have certainly been given the right incentives : The holiday from history that we have enjoyed since the early '90s may be drawing to an end, and another great-power war, fought next time with nuc lear weapons, may be lurking in our future. The "firebreak" against
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  • Summer '20
  • Entrepreneurship, Technological singularity, UBI, Basic Income Earth Network

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