Concept stoicism the ethics of dispassion 18 for

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CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 18 For Plato, the Forms are the __________ foundation of reality, which means that knowledge of reality is grounded in knowledge of the Forms. metaphysical logical ethical natural RATIONALE Plato was interested in abstract concepts (e.g., being and substance). These concepts are the subjects of the field of philosophy known as metaphysics. Plato wanted to know how these concepts exist in reality (i.e., their essences). Therefore, Plato's Forms were his metaphysical notion of the essences that ground the knowledge of reality. CONCEPT Plato's Forms: The Objects of Knowledge 19 Nancy is a cashier at a grocery store. A boy from her school, who she knows is underage, attempts to buy beer. Nancy hesitates before completing the transaction. According to Aristotle’s ethics, which question should Nancy ask herself? Why is this action right, and why is it wrong?
What kind of person should I be? Are there possible consequences of this action that could harm me? How can I reach a compromise? RATIONALE Aristotelian ethics are primarily concerned with character. As a result, Nancy should ask herself “What kind of person should I be?” rather than “How should I act?” According to Aristotelian ethics, actions are evaluated based on how they inform your character. Therefore, Nancy must determine what kind of person she wants to be and what virtues she wants to cultivate, and then act accordingly. CONCEPT Applying Aristotle's Ethics 20 Read the following statement by Socrates: “In questions of just and unjust, fair and foul, good and evil, which are the subjects of our present consultation, ought we to follow the opinion of the many and to fear them; or the opinion of the one man who has understanding?” Extract Socrates' argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately reflects it. He who has experienced the administration of justice will do as the majority commands him to do. Non-experts have opinions, but the man who is an expert in a field has true knowledge. Absolute justice can only be achieved when the state agrees with the opinion of the masses.
Any man who cares about ethics and wisdom has an obligation to listen to himself over others. RATIONALE In this selection from the Crito , Socrates argues that we should consult experts (who have "understanding," or knowledge) when we seek wisdom, and not the majority (who have only opinion). CONCEPT The Apology — Socrates' Arguments 21 What kind of a thing is an orchid? It is a type of flower. What distinguishes an orchid from other flowers? The female and male parts of an orchid are fused together. According to Aristotle, answering both of these questions reveals the __________ of an orchid. ontology essence genus organization RATIONALE According to Aristotle, we can discover and describe essences by identifying a genus and a differentia . The genus (in this example, a flower) tells us what kind of thing an orchid is. The differentia tells us what sets an orchid apart from other things of the same kind.

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