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True or False: religion and science always disagree.A) True.B) False.Feedback: Pope John Paul II said that the Catholic Church has no problem with evolution, and Baptist Jimmy Carter also supported evolution, so it is clear that religionand science can agree.Points Earned:1.0/1.
0Correct Answer(s):B2.The dominant large animals on Earth today are mammals. Before the giant meteorite impact 65 million years ago:A) Mammals also were the dominant large animals.B) Very large mammals coexisted with the dinosaurs; those very large mammals have gotten smaller after the meteorite impact because the mammals don't have to be big to compete with the dinosaurs any more.C) Small mammals coexisted with dinosaurs, and after the dinosaurs were killed by the meteorite, the small animals wanted to become bigger and so made themselves bigger.D) Small mammals coexisting with the dinosaurs were not able to outcompete thedinosaurs for big-animal jobs, but after the dinosaurs were killed, some large mammals evolved from small mammals to fill the large-animal jobs.E) Moose were the dominant large animals.Feedback: There are “big-animal” jobs—eating tall trees, eating smaller animals, etc. But the total number of big-animal jobs is limited. The dinosaurs filled the big-animal jobs before mammals really got going, and mammals were not able to displace the dinosaurs. Some small mammals survived the meteorite that killed the dinosaurs, and then evolved to give big mammals over millions of years and longer. There were almost no big mammals before the dinosaurs were killed off. Volition has nothing to dowith evolution.Points Earned:1.0/1.0Correct Answer(s):D
3.Considering long-term averages, and assuming that we don’t deploy space-based defenses against incoming meteorites, a reasonable estimate of the chance of an average U.S. citizen being killed by the effects of a meteorite or comet impact is that this risk is about the same as the chance of being killed by:A) A dinosaur stampede.B) Crash of a commercial airplane.C) Crash of a car.D) The various diseases that come from smoking, overeating and under-exercisingfor a long time.E) Choking on a Diet Pepsi can.Feedback: Nobody that we know eats Pepsi cans, and while there are still meteorites in the solar system that can hit and kill, there are no dinosaurs left except on “The Flintstones”. A reputable study found that a meteorite impact might not occur for millions of years (or might occur next year…) but then might kill billions of people; plane crashes usually kill a few to a few hundred each year. Add up the deaths over a sufficiently long time, and plane crashes and meteorite impacts likely are similarly dangerous. But car crashes, smoking, and being fat and lazy are way more dangerous to us.Points Earned:1.0/1.0Correct Answer(s):B4.
Extinction removes biodiversity, and evolution generates biodiversity. The balance between extinction and evolution controls the Earth’s biodiversity. Based on the scientific evidence summarized in the text and in class:A) Biodiversity on the planet is constant because extinction and evolution are in balance over short and long times.