Thus references may be found to salt water furunculosis Rucker 1963 boil

Thus references may be found to salt water

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Thus, references may be found to "salt-water furunculosis" (Rucker, 1963), "boil- disease" (Kubota and Takakuwa, 1963) and "ulcer-disease" (Bagge and Bagge, 1956), as well as to the universally accepted name of "vibriosis". Apt but gory descriptions have been made about the nature of vibriosis in fish. To microbiologists, the disease may be regarded as yet another haemorrhagic septi- caemia. Typically, infected fish show skin discoloration, the presence of red necrotic lesions in the abdominal muscle, and erythema (bloody blotches) at the base of the fins, around the vent and within the mouth (in this respect there is a resemblance to ERM, caused by Yersinia ruckeri). The gut and rectum may be distended, and filled with clear viscous fluid. Exophthalmia may be evident (Anderson and Conroy, 1970). In Pacific salmon fingerlings, a bacteraemia occurs in the initial stages of disease. From histological examination, it may be concluded that there are pathological changes in the blood, connective tissue, gills, kidney, liver (an anaemia) and posterior gastro-intestinal tract, and swelling in the spleen. The bacterial cells appear to be uniformly distributed throughout the affected tissues, although the greatest concen- tration is in the blood (Tajima et al, 1981; Ransom et al, 1984). Usually, infected fish become inactive, cease feeding (this may cause problems for chemotherapy) and suffer heavy mortalities. Fin rot is another condition attributed to V. anguillarum. For example, the pathogen has been blamed for causing fin rot in juvenile turbot principally in north- ern China (Lei et al, 2006). Here, the infection led to mortalities of 90-100% (Lei et al, 2006). F. cholerae (non-Ol) Petechial haemorrhages developed on the body surface. Internally, there was con- gestion of the organs (Muroga et al, 1979; Kiiyukia et al, 1992). Reddacliff et al. (1993) reported that septicaemia developed in infected goldfish.
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42 Bacterial Fish Pathogens V. fischeri Most diseased fish possessed whitish nodules on the skin (dorsal surface), haemor- rhagic ulceration, and tumours involving the pancreas and bile duct. Within a year, 39% losses occurred in the fish population (Lamas et al, 1990). F. furnissii There has been an indication that V. furnissii may be associated with eel disease in Spain (Esteve, 1995). However, isolates were recovered from water rather than diseased eels. Therefore, the association with fish pathology is dubious. Vibrio harveyi (including V, carchariae and V, trachuri) V. carchariae was originally isolated from a dead sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) which died at the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1982 (Grimes et al, 1984a). Subsequently, a similar organism was recovered from lemon sharks (Negraprion brevirostris) (Colwell and Grimes, 1984). Grimes et al. (1984b) and Colwell and Grimes (1984) described the disease as a "vasculitis". Infected animals became lethargic, stopped feeding, appeared disorientated and developed necrotic subdermal cysts. On postmortem examination, encephahtis, meningitis, kidney necrosis, vascuHtis, and unspecified liver and spleen damage were noted.
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