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11.Why are most childhood cancers diagnosed during peak physical growth? a.Childhood cancers are most often diagnosed during peak times of physical growth. In general, they are extremely fast growing, with 80% having distant spread(metastases) at diagnosis. Childhood cancers are not asresponsive to standardized treatment modalities, which is why participation in clinical trials helps reduce mortality.Which statements are true regarding cancers that develop in children? (Select all that apply.)a. Childhood cancers tend to be fast growing.b. Childhood cancers are diagnosed during growth spurts.c. Childhood cancer generally metastasizes by the time of diagnosis.d. Childhood cancer is typically at low risk for aggressive metastasis.e. Childhood cancers respond well to standardized treatment modalities.When are childhood cancers most often diagnosed?12.How do oncogenes accelerate tissue proliferation?
a.Oncogenes are independent of normal regulatory mechanisms; thus the cell is driven into a state of unregulated constitutive expression of proliferation signals and uncontrolled cell growth.The professor explains to students that oncogenes are genes that are capable of what?What do hypomethylation and the resulting effect on oncogenes result in?13.What is the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in cell metastasis?14.How does chromosome translocation contribute to lymphomas?b.Chromosome translocations, in which a piece of one chromosome is translocated to another chromosome, can activate oncogenes. One of the best examples is the t(8;14) translocation found in many Burkitt lymphomas; t(8;14) designates a chromosome that has a piece of chromosome 8 fused to a piece of chromosome 14.
Burkitt lymphomas designate a chromosome that has a piece of chromosome8 fused to a piece of chromosome 14. This is an example of which mutation of normal genes to oncogenes?a. Point mutationb. Chromosome translocationc. Gene amplificationd. Chromosome fusion15.Women with a high BMI are at risk for what type of cancers? a. A recent hypothesis states that the observed increased incidence of such cancers as breast, endometrium, colon, liver, kidney, and adenomas of the esophagus may be associated with obesity.In teaching a women’s community group, which risk factor does the healthcare professional teach is related to high morbidity ofcancer of the colon, uterus, and kidney?