MSL101L04 Basic Map Reading SR.pdf lesson 4.pdf

9 27 a hill is an area of high ground from a hilltop

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9-27. A hill is an area of high ground. From a hilltop, the ground slopes down in all directions. A hill is shown on a map by contour lines forming concentric circles. The inside of the smallest closed circle is the hilltop. (See Figure 9-16.) Figure 9-16. Hill
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Elevation and Relief 15 November 2013 TC 3-25.26 9-13 9-28. A saddle is a dip or low point between two areas of higher ground. A saddle is not necessarily the lower ground between two hilltops; it may be simply a dip or break along a level ridge crest. If you are in a saddle, there is high ground in two opposite directions and lower ground in the other two directions. A saddle is normally represented as an hourglass. (See Figure 9-17.) Figure 9-17. Saddle 9-29. A valley is a stretched-out groove in the land, usually formed by streams or rivers. It begins with high ground on three sides and usually has a course of running water through it. If standing in a valley, three directions offer high ground, while the fourth direction offers low ground. Depending upon its size and where a person is standing, it may not be obvious that there is high ground in the third direction, but water flows from higher to lower ground. Contour lines forming a valley are either U-shaped or V-shaped. To determine the direction water is flowing, look at the contour lines. The closed end of the contour line (U or V) always points upstream or toward high ground. (See Figure 9-18.) Figure 9-18. Valley
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Chapter 9 9-14 TC 3-25.26 15 November 2013 9-30. A ridge is a sloping line of high ground. The centerline of a ridge normally has low ground in three directions and high ground in one direction, with varying degrees of slope. If a ridge is crossed at right angles, a Soldier climbs steeply to the crest and then descends steeply to the base. When moving along the path of the ridge, depending on the geographic location, there may be either an almost unnoticeable slope or a very obvious incline. Contour lines forming a ridge tend to be U-shaped or V-shaped. The closed end of the contour line points away from high ground. (See Figure 9-19.) Figure 9-19. Ridge 9-31. A depression is a low point in the ground or a sinkhole. It could be described as an area of low ground surrounded by higher ground in all directions, or simply a hole in the ground. Usually, only depressions that are equal to or greater than the contour interval is shown. On maps, depressions are represented by closed contour lines that have tick marks pointing toward low ground. (See Figure 9-20.) Figure 9-20. Depression M INOR T ERRAIN F EATURES 9-32. Minor terrain features include draws, spurs, and cliffs. They are represented on maps in unique ways. 9-33. A draw is a stream course that is less developed than a valley. In a draw, there is essentially no level ground and little or no maneuver room within its confines. In a draw, the ground slopes upward in three directions and downward in the other direction. A draw could be considered as the initial formation of a valley.
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