2.3.3. Infrastructure network access pricing Infrastructure charges differ by country, but the system is most well developed in the EU where charges are a legal requirement. Multiple approaches share common components: - Capacity – utilization based on train path use - Gross – tonnage over the track to reflect infrastructure wear and tear - Ancillary charges for infrastructure company services such as power supply, stabling, or rescue. Charges usually differ by train type and route standards, generally reflecting cost and market consideration that are difficult to disaggregate. In Germany, for example, passenger and freight train track access is subject to a common basic tariff framework; pricing “factors” result in different tariff rates. German track access charging policy aims to recover a high proportion of railway infrastructure costs from train operating companies. The train-path tariff system has a three-part modular design: - Basic price for route category and utilization level: 12 route categories are grouped by infrastructure performance standard and transport importance. Basic prices are increased by a 20 percent premium on routes with very high utilization.
- Train path products (product factor): the “basic” price may be multiplied by other factors that depend on whether the company is operating freight or passenger train service or seeking to purchase other service features or levels (that differ for passenger and freight services). - Special factors: a series of multiplicative, additive, or regional factors such as those for steam trains, extra heavy freight trains, or tilting passenger train technology. In theory, the economic benefits of Ramsey pricing apply to a separated rail infrastructure company as much as to a vertically integrated railway. But, the practicality of Ramsey pricing is greatly reduced with a separate infrastructure company. Infrastructure companies deal with train operating companies not freight customers, and are remote from the detailed market information that would allow managers to price to market. Moreover, Ramsey pricing may also now be less acceptable. Most separated railway infrastructure companies do not apply Ramsey pricing in any substantive form. Indeed, since marginal cost to the infrastructure company is so similar, it is unclear whether regulatory authorities would permit differentiated charges. Therefore, the venerable principle of Ramsey pricing may be weakened by placing its full burden on rail infrastructure charges rather than the total freight rate. Countries that pursued vertical separation are hoping that separation allied to greater competition in rail service will generate greater use and revenue for the railway network. 2.4. Promoting products and relationship with the tour operator 2.4.1. Promoting products Around the world: All head to Sustainable railway tourism.
- Fall '19
- Government, Rail transport, Ministry of Transport