Gay rights activists were also conscious of how

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Gay rights activists were also conscious of how America's cold warleadership of the "free world" provided opportunities to those working fordomestic change, given the increasing international attention that focusedon the nation's ability to live up to its proclaimed ideals."'' In planning thePentagon demonstration, ECHO (East Coast Homophile Organizations,an umbrella group formed in 1963) condemned the refusal to allow knownhomosexuals to serve in the military and the policy of giving a dishonor-able discharge to any member of the armed services who was discoveredto be a homosexual, irrespective ofhisquality of service or performance.They asserted that "these policies ill-befit a nation which claims before theworld to uphold the rights which this nation does and the concepts of hu-man worth and of human dignity which our nation does; a nation whichchampions personal freedom, individuality, the right not to conform, asour nation does."'* On 31 July 1965 a group of sixteen activists, includingveterans from "various branches of the Armed Service (some with front-line combat experience)," demonstrated outside the Pentagon. Signs werecarried that included slogans such as "U.S. claims no second class citizens;" Mattachine Society ofWashington,Information Bulletin, in MSNY, series 3, gay or-ganizations,box 8, folder 5, reel 18; "Pickets Demand Fair Treatment for Homosexuals,"SundayStar {Wishinffon,D.C.), 30 May 1965, in MSNY, series 2, topical file, box 3, folder21,reel 9; R. Cafiero, undated and untided report, in MSNY, series 2, topical file, box 4,folder11,reel 12; D'Emilio,SexualPolitics,161, 158-68; "Why Are Homosexual AmericanCitizensPicketing the Pentagon?" MSNY, series 2, topical file, box 3, tblder 21, reel 9; andMattachineSociety ofWashington,Intbrniation Bulletin, in MSNY, series 3, gay organiza-tions,box 8, folder 5, reel 18." Mattachine SocietyofWashington,Information Bulletin, in MSNY, series 3, gay orga-nizations,box 8, folder 5, reel 18; Mattachine SocietyofWashington,Information Bulletin,3,in MSNY, series 2, topical file, box 3, folder 21, reel 9.'' The civil rights movement took advantage of the cold war context with some success;see,for example, Mary L. Dudziak,Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the ImageofAmericanDemoeraey{Princeton,N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002)." ECHO was a loose coalition of the New York and Washington, D.C., chapters ofMattachine,the Janus Society, and the Daughters ofBilitis,founded in 1963; see D'Emilio,SexualPolitics,161, 158-68. See also "Why Are Homosexual American Citizens PicketingthePentagon?"
Patriotic Protest543what about homosexual citizens?" and "Homosexual citizens want to servetheir country too." The demonstration received extensive coverage on theAmerican television network CBS.'^Meeting in a coffee shop after the second White House protest. New YorkMattachine's Oaig Rodwell, a native of Chicago who moved to GreenwichVillage in the late 1950s and became active in the homophile movement,suggested an annual Fourth of July protest outside Philadelphia's Indepen-

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