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and by depriving country managers of possibilities in order to exercising their creativity.[ CITATION Mic13 \l 17417 ]Implementers provided the critical mass for the international marketing effort.These country organizations may exist in smaller, less-established markets in whichcorporate commitment to market development is lower. The presence in these markets istypically through a sales organization. Although most entities fill this role, it should notbe slighted. Implementers provide the opportunity to capture economies of scale andscope that are the basis of a global strategy. With a few notable exceptions, mostsubsidiary managers would argue they do not get the level of attention they need ordeserve. But they are important nonetheless because they provide clear evidence thatparent companies can view initiative-taking and profile-building efforts positively.[ CITATION Mic13 \l 17417 ]