Will consume hundreds of cells before dying Natural Killer NK cells From

Will consume hundreds of cells before dying natural

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Will consume hundreds of cells before dying Natural Killer (NK) cells From lymphocytes Nonphagocytic large granular lymphocytes Attack cells that lack “self” cell-surface receptors - Induce apoptosis in cancer cells and virus-infected cells Enhance inflammatory response Antibacterial Proteins Interferons, complement proteins, defensins Attack microorganisms’ ability to reproduce Fever Systematic increase in body temperature Result: increase “classic” definition of metabolism By making the body temp higher, chemical reactions speed up Leukocytes and macrophages exposed to foreign substances secrete pyrogens Inflammatory Response Triggered by: Injured body tissues Extreme heat Infections
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Goals: Prevents spread of damaging agents Disposes of cell debris and pathogens Alerts adaptive immune system Sets the stage for repair Signs of Inflammatory Response 1. Redness 2. Heat 3. Swelling 4. Pain 5. (sometimes) Impairment of function Steps of Inflammation Part 1 Injured/stressed tissue or immune cells release chemical signal Example: Leukocytosis-inducing factor; mast cells → histamine Macrophages identify invaders → chemical signal Start pathway to combat invaders Vessel dilate Redness and heat Vasodilation, blood vessel increase in size. Increasing blood flow near site of injury Blood flows faster Histamine → higher capillary permeability → exudate enters tissues (exudation) → swelling (edema) → pain Function impaired? Steps of Inflammation Part 2 Phagocyte Mobilization Phagocytes arrive in mass 1. Neutrophils 3. Diapedesis 2. Macrophages 4. Chemotaxis
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Neutrophils are the most abundant so they arrive first to the region Leukocytosis : increases white blood cell count to fight off pathogens Chemical marker near wall of injury, where neutrophils will cling to Diapedesis is where neutrophils flatten and squeeze capillaries Lastly, Chemotaxis Neutrophils follow chemical trail Recall - Part of Inflammation Histamine → higher capillary permeability → exudate enters tissues (exudation) → swelling (edema) → pain Off to the Lymphatic System Exudation → rush of self and foreign material into lymphatic vessels Lymphatic system (to be cleaned) Fluid leaked from blood vessels → back to blood Main structures include spleen, thymus, tonsils, and lymph nodes Consists of three parts 1. Network of lymphatic vessels (lymphatics) 2. Lymph - fluid in vessels 3. Lymph nodes - cleanse lymph (1-25mm) Lymphoid cells Lymphocytes Arise in red bone marrow Mature into one of two main varieties T cells (T lymphocytes) B cells (B lymphocytes) Other cells of lymphatic system Macrophages Dendritic cells Reticular cells produce reticular fiber Cancer and Lymphatic System TNM system Tumor Nodes Metastasis Breast cancer is spread through the body easier because the cancer is right near lots of lymphatic vessels Increase diameter → decrease resistance Increase in resistance → decrease in flow
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Immunology part 3 Adaptive defences: Specific/Acquired 9/18
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