However it is not possible to provide the absolute amount of the attribute

# However it is not possible to provide the absolute

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interval level of measurement, distances between intervals of the scale are numerically equal. However, it is not possible to provide the absolute amount of the attribute because of the absence of a zero point that actually means none of the measured quantity, on the interval scale. Ratio level of measurement is the highest form of measure and meets all the rules of the lower forms of measures: mutually exclusive categories, exhaustive categories, rank ordering, equal spacing between intervals, and a continuum of values. In addition, ratio-level measures have absolute zero points. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Page 561 6. Which of the following variables are able to be analyzed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation? (Select all that apply.) a. Age b . Race c. Gender d . Score on the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory e. Years of education f. Temperature g . Nickname h . Size of hospital gown worn ANS: A, D, E, F Use of the Pearson product-moment correlation assumes that the variables are at the interval or ratio level of measurement. In this example, they would be only the four: age, score on the STAI, years of education, and temperature. Nominal level of measurement is the lowest of the four measurement levels or categories. It is used when data can be organized into categories of a defined property but the categories cannot be ordered. In interval level of measurement, distances between intervals of the scale are numerically equal. However, it is not possible to provide the absolute amount of the attribute because of the absence of a zero
point that actually means none of the measured quantity, on the interval scale. Ratio level of measurement is the highest form of measure and meets all the rules of the lower forms of measures: mutually exclusive categories, exhaustive categories, rank ordering, equal spacing between intervals, and a continuum of values. In addition, ratio-level measures have absolute zero points. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 561 7. Twelve research studies show a strong correlation between low levels of education and poverty. A social scientist declares that the “cure” for poverty is in free education for all of the children of the poor. What are valid arguments against this declaration? (Select all that apply.) a. The scientist believes that a low level of education, in and of itself, causes poverty, but no study has demonstrated this. b . It is possible that low levels of education cause Item B, and Item B causes poverty. c. It is possible that multigenerational poverty causes lower levels of education. d . It is possible that low levels of education and poverty are both caused by social injustice. e. Twelve correlational research studies are not enough to demonstrate cause: at least 50 studies of 100 subjects each would be required for this. ANS: A, B, C, D Correlational analysis provides two pieces of information about the data: the nature or direction of the linear relationship (positive or negative) between the two variables and the magnitude (or strength) of the linear relationship. A positive correlation is not an indication of causality, no matter how strong the statistical result.

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• Fall '16
• Denise Cauble
• Nursing, Qualitative Research, researcher, Cognitive Level

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