L10 Slide 16 In Europe only 5 of lithium ion batteries are recycled Risk of

L10 slide 16 in europe only 5 of lithium ion

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L10 Slide 16 In Europe, only 5% of lithium-ion batteries are recycled Risk of toxic gases Water pollution Resource depletion (lithium and cobalt) Invested to use smelting to recover precious metals such as cobalt and nickel
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L10 Slide 17 Recycling Challenges: Li Ion Batteries Large number (i.e. thousands) of cells per battery Difficult to separate Wide variety of battery materials on the market LiCoO 2 , Li(Ni,Mn,Al)O 2, LiMn 2 O 4 , LiFePO 4 Laboratory-scale processes may not have a net economic benefit when scaled Most automotive Li-ion batteries have not yet reached their end of life
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L10 Slide 18 Recycling Lithium Ion 3. Transported from dealer via trucks to recycling facility in Trail, British Columbia 4. Frozen in liquid nitrogen to halt lithium reactions 5. Shredded
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L10 Slide 19 Recycling Lithium Ion 6. Pulverization Hammer Mill
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L10 Slide 20 Recycling Lithium Ion 7. Separated into: fluff; copper cobalt, cobalt filter cake Fluff Copper Cobalt (L); Cobalt Filter Cake (R)
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L10 Slide 21 Other Techniques Leaching battery materials in water to remove lithium and other metals Mix soda ash (Na 2 CO 3 ) into leachate to precipitate Li 2 CO 3 that can be separated Remove electrolyte using supercritical CO 2 and separate electrode materials using physical properties (i.e. electrical conductivity) Sustainable Materials and Technologies , Volumes 1 2 , December 2014, Pages 2 7
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March 29 & April 1, 2019 L10 Part 2: Facilitating Disassembly DfES, Chapter 9
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L10 Slide 23 Design for Disassembly Design products so that the parts & materials can be easily separated Ability to separate parts can extend the product lifespan by allowing maintenance, repairs, reuse, and remanufacturing Ability to separate the materials can extend the material lifespan by facilitating recycling
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L10 Slide 24 Recycling and Disassembly Depth Disassembly depth: The degree of components’ separation A useful variable for the analysis of recycling costs
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L10 Slide 25 Separating End-of-Life Materials (p. 187) Product Disassembly Separate Materials by Part Crush or Shred the Product Separate Materials in the Residue
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L10 Slide 26 1) Facilitating Operations of Disassembly & Separation (9.2.1) Prioritize disassembling toxic & dangerous materials e.g. remove refrigerant from air conditioner e.g. remove battery from car Prioritize disassembling material with high economic value e.g. gold in electrical circuits Prioritize disassembly of easily damageable components e.g. glass windows
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