104 In summary ILs are unique and promising solvents for extractions because of

104 in summary ils are unique and promising solvents

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104 In summary, ILs are unique and promising solvents for extractions because of their non-volatility, adjustable hydrophobicity and polarity, dissolution ability, and selectivity of gases. There is a fundamental answer to these favorable properties: ionic liquids are organic molecules and ionic salts at the same time. And, they are liquids. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This project was partially supported by SSU/NIH- EARDA grant No. 5 G11 HD 32861-07 and by an NIH-MBRS grant. REFERENCES 1 Seddon KR, Ionic liquids for clean technology. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 68 :351–356 (1997). 2 Welton T, Room-temperature ionic liquids—solvents for synthesis and catalysis. Chemical Review 99 :2071–2083 (1999). 3 Seddon K, Ionic liquids: designer solvents for green synthesis. Tce 730 :33–35 (2002). 4 Gordon CM, New developments in catalysis using ionic liquids. Applied Catalysis A: General 222 :101–117 (2001). 5 Houlton S, Ionic liquids: the route to cleaner and more efficient fine chemical synthesis? Chemical Week (Feb 25/Mar 3): s10–s11 (2004). 6 Zhao H and Malhotra SV, Applications of ionic liquids in organic synthesis. Aldrichimica Acta 35 :75–83 (2002). 7 Earle M, Forestier A, Olivier-Bourbigou H and Wasser- scheid P, Organic synthesis, in Ionic Liquids in Synthesis , ed by Wasserscheid P and Welton T. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, pp 174–288 (2003). 8 Jain N, Kumar A, Chauhan S and Chauhan SMS, Chemical and biochemical transformations in ionic liquids. Tetrahedron 61 :1015–1060 (2005). 9 Endres F and Welton T, Inorganic synthesis, in Ionic Liquids in Synthesis , ed by Wasserscheid P and Welton T. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, pp 289–318 (2003). 10 Husum TL, Jorgensen CT, Christensen MW and Kirk O, Enzyme catalysed synthesis in ambient temperature ionic liq- uids. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation 19 :331–338 (2001). 11 Kragl U, Eckstein M and Kaftzik N, Enzyme catalysis in ionic liquids. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 13 :565–571 (2002). 12 Park S and Kazlauskas RJ, Biocatalysis in ionic liq- uids—advantages beyond green technology. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14 :432–437 (2003). 13 Sheldon RA, Lau RM, Sorgedrager MJ, van Rantwijk F and Seddon KR, Biocatalysis in ionic liquids. Green Chemistry 4 :147–151 (2002). 14 van Rantwijk F, Madeira Lau R and Sheldon RA, Biocatalytic transformations in ionic liquids. Trends in Biotechnology 21 :131–138 (2003). J Chem Technol Biotechnol 80 :1089–1096 (2005) 1093
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H Zhao, S Xia, P Ma 15 Kubisa P, Application of ionic liquids as solvents for polymerization processes. Progress in Polymer Science 29 :3–12 (2004). 16 Carmichael AJ and Haddleton DM, Polymer synthesis in ionic liquids, in Ionic Liquids in Synthesis , ed by Wasserscheid P and Welton T. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, pp 319–335 (2003). 17 Huddleston JG, Visser AE, Reichert WM, Willauer HD, Bro- ker GA and Rogers RD, Characterization and comparison of hydrophilic and hydrophobic room temperature ionic liq- uids incorporating the imidazolium cation. Green Chemistry 3 :156–164 (2001). 18 Visser AE, Swatloski RP, Reichert WM, Griffin ST and Rogers RD, Traditional extractants in nontraditional sol- vents: groups 1 and 2 extraction by crown ethers in room- temperature ionic liquids. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 39 :3596–3604 (2000).
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