Vi well developed internal skeleton of cartilage and

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vi. Well-developed internal skeleton of cartilage and bone, separated into axial skeleton (skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum) and appendicular skeleton (girdles and appendages). vii. Highly developed brain enclosed by skull, and nerve cord enclosed by vertebrae. This provides advanced neural structures that are highly protected from damage. viii. Well-developed sense organs (eyes, ears, nostrils) located on the head (cephalization). ix. Respiratory system, including either gills or lungs, and located closely to the pharynx or throat. x. Closed circulatory system with ventral heart and median dorsal artery. xi. Genital and excretory systems closely related, utilizing common ducts and pathways. xii. Digestive tracts with two major digestive glands (liver and pancreas) that secrete into it. (b) Discuss the general characteristics of Reptiles & Birds a. Reptiles i. Covered with tough, dry scales ii. Ectothermic iii. Breath with lungs throughout their lives iv. Three-chambered heart with a ventricle that is partially divided
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Amber Holmes-Turner Biology 2 v. Produce amniotic eggs covered with a leathery shell, most oviparous, some ovoviviparous b. Birds i. Endothermic ii. Heart with four chambers iii. Toothless bill iv. Oviparous, laying an amniotic egg that is covered in a lime-containing shell v. Covered with feathers vi. Skeleton composed of porous, lightweight bones (not a characteristic of all birds) (c) Discuss the general characteristic of human a. Human characteristics include aspects such as standing upright, using tools to gather food or kill animals, and evolving different body shapes. Other aspects include brains that are continually growing bigger and more complex, using symbols and language, and developing a social system.
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