Boosted Red Army's morale- a reminder that this army is powerful and well-armed. Considered the turning point of WWII. After the large scale offensives during this time, Germany had more modest attacks. Stalin knew another attack needed to be planned against Germany. Remarkable because it followed a loss in December 1941 of 4 million men, 8,000 aircraft, and 17,000 tanksRemarkable because it followed the German capture of more than half the Soviet steel and coal output and the fertile lands where food was produced Stalin considered giving up in October 1941 KurskKursk quickly turned into a fortress- Soviet Union gained intelligence of a German attack there. Zhukov organized the area and heavily fortified it to the Red Army's advantage. Soviet commanders allocated 40% of the Red Army manpower and 75% of its armored force for the battle- Victory was critical for both sides. Intelligence found that the German attack would come any time between July 3-6, but the German offensive ceased, and as they waited, the Soviets launched an attack that caught them completely off guard. For some time, German commanders thought it was the wildest of coincidences that the Red Army launched an offensive at the exact same time as them. "Soviet success at Kursk, with so much at stake, was the most important single victory in the war" After Kursk, the Red Army gave the retreating Germans no rest- German forces lacked the manpower and equipment to hold against the enemy. Importance of these VictoriesLittle dispute on German/Soviet sides that this was the major turning-point. Hitler is blamed for strategic mismanagement, Soviet Union success is ascribed to its overwhelming numbers, but this is not the sole reason. Better planning of operations, improvements of Soviet technology and tactics for using them, especially seen at Kursk. Entire Soviet war efforts seen from the gunners to the transport workers- total sacrifice by the Soviet Union Chapter 4 (Meghan): Strategic BombingBritish Use of Bombing Churchill was a bombing enthusiast, and within days of being elected PM he lifted all restrictions on British bombing, and BRitain embarked on a five-year campaign of air bombardment against Germany. Bombing was the first choice of Anglo-American planners in their efforts to get directly at Germany in 1942, and remained a central element in western war-making until the defeat of the Axis powers in 1945therefore contributed to the Allied victory Body analogy: Bombing did not just weaken the military limbs of the victim, but destroyed the central nerves, the heart, the brain, the arteries, and the ability of a nation to make war at all --> Target of strategic bombing was the heart of the enemy state.