global warming. Second, in the transition from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), many positions are consistent with the view that extreme poverty has been decreasing in all regions of the world with the exception of SSA, where close to half the countries in the sub-region have been substantially off-course from achieving the MDG extreme poverty threshold (World Bank, 2015; Asongu & Le Roux, 2017). Evidence of this extreme poverty trend substantially contrasts with the fact that the sub-region has been enjoying more than two decades of economic growth resurgence which began in the mid-1990s (Asongu & Nwachukwu, 2016a). It is therefore logical to infer that the fruits of economic prosperity are not substantially trickling down to unprivileged factions of the population in order to address absolute poverty. Moreover, it is also logical to associate the corresponding economic prosperity to green house gas emissions which have been documented to considerably represent a challenge to environmental sustainability in the post-2015 development era (see Akinyemi et al., 2015). Third, there is consensus today that environmental sustainability is a key theme in the post-2015 development agenda (Akpan & Akpan, 2012; Asongu et al., 2016a). The relevance of this theme to SSA can be articulated along four constructive lines, notably: the comparatively high economic growth record in the sub-region; growing energy crisis; poor management of energy crisis and negative externalities from global warming. Considering these points in detail, we can note that SSA has recently experienced over two decades of growth resurgence after decades lost in the quest for economic development (see Fosu, 2015), partly due to the ineffective formulation and failed implementation of Structural Adjustment
4 Programmes. With more evidence that the continent has recently hosted seven of the ten fastest growing economies in the world (see Bradley, 2016), it is logical to assert that the underlying burgeoning economic prosperity has been associated with environmental degradation and pollution as well as emissions of green house gases. While the energy crisis has been documented as another critical challenge in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda (Akinyemi et al., 2015), the crisis is most apparent in SSA, because the privileged part of the population in sub-regions with access to energy is about 5% (see Shurig, 2015). The narrative maintains that the total energy that is consumed in the sub-region is equivalent to that consumed in some states in more advanced economies like the state of New York, United States of America (USA). Furthermore, consumption of energy by the sub-region accounts for just about 17% of the global average. Moreover, inefficiency is a common feature in the management of energy in most African countries (Soumoni & Sounmoni, 2011; Anyangwe, 2014). This perspective can be substantiated by considering Nigeria, the continent’s most populous nation, where shortages of and outages in electricity are addressed with government subsidised petroleum fuel, which is
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World energy resources and consumption, Millennium Development Goals