“Removal” of up to 45 million “surplus” Slavs (Poles, Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusans) Jarausch pp. 352-6 on GPO & ethnic cleansing Slavs But also Jews o Nazi antisemitism Mass shootings: “Murder by bullets” Targets: Racial & political enemies | “Judeo-Bolsheviks” Perpetrators: Einsatzgruppen (EGN) o Mobile killing squads o 4 groups followed Wehrmacht
e.g. Einsatzkommando 3a of EGN A killed 137,346 Jews Jul.-Nov. 1941 in 112 Aktions | 71 locations 9 SELECT POPLE WERE DOING THE HORRID JOB) End 1941: up to 1.8 million o Numbers… (NAZIS KEPT RECORDS) Picture: Babi Yar (womans revine), Kiev Ukraine 33,741 Sept. 29-30, 1941 Streamlining the Killing Difficult to do everything Limits of shooting, ghettos, starvation as policy choices Other options? Gassing at death camps The Final Solution for ALL European Jews from 1942 Wannsee Jan. 1942 Early 1942 (vansig conference of how to be killed): 75 % of Jews who would be murdered were still alive Early 1943 : 75% who would be murdered were dead The 6 Death Camps Death vs. concentration camps Gas to kill Jews (comes slowly, trial and error, large impact & minimal human power) o Experiments from 1941 T4 program (experiments w/ carbon monoxide and then perfected) Soviet POWs: Auschwitz (Insecticide Zyklon B only at Aushwitz and Majdanek) Jews at Chelmno (carbon monoxide in gas vans) Concentration Camps Route to the Death Camps West Epn Jews -> Ghettos EEp first Or straight to death camps (too many people to kill & they need their labour capacity) o “Resettlement to the East” deception: Valuables must be registered. Length of time in ghettos? o Balancing labour needs with genocide goals Selection ramps at (some) camps o Labour or immediate death (age, health, gender) Peak killing years 1942-43 o Birkenau (Auschwitz II): 4 gas chambers 20,000 / day ~ 3 million
Hungary is having its own problems with far right movements. About 400,000 Jews being deported June 1944 Sources for Genocide Material history o e.g. gas chambers, crematoria, corpses Survivor testimonies o Diaries o Memoirs o But Auschwitz vs. Belzec Witness testimonies o e.g. Train conductors, staff at camps, local residents Perpetrator & collaborator testimonies o Postwar trial Deportation lists o Train records, registered property, confiscated belongings Warsaw ghetto archives Aid & rescue groups Nazi photographs Nazi documents o e.g. EGN “Incident reports” re: mass CONCLUSIONS ~ 6 million Perpetrators: Nazis + Collaborators Bystanders?! Historiography HI 250 Bloodlands HI 364 The Holocaust HI 288/388 Poland travel course Lecture Outline
End of War o Jarausch ch. 14, “Bitter Victory” (review; it’s good!) Postwar Reconstruction o Jarauch ch. 15, “Democratic Renewal” o Denazification + political & economic rebuilding o Role of USA The Last Days (Review) Nazis squeezed from West & East Hitler suicide Apr. 30 Soviets in Berlin May 1945 Surrender May 8: “Victory in Europe” Day Picture: Soviet flag over the Reichstag, central Berlin 1945 Ubiquitous devastation” 1945 vs. 1918
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