Social hierarchies Any relationship between individuals or groups that is

Social hierarchies any relationship between

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Social hierarchies → Any relationship between individuals or groups that is unequal and provides one person or group with more status and power than another. Power → Power has three distinct dimensions in the sociological sense: (1) the power of an individual or group to get another individual or group to do something it wants, which sometimes may involve force; (2) the power to control the agenda of issues that are to be decided; (3) the power to persuade others that their interests are the same as those of a powerholder. Power can be possessed by individuals or groups. Privilege → The ability or right to have special access to opportunities or claims on rewards. Discrimination → Any behaviour, practice, or policy that harms, excludes, or disadvantages individuals on the basis of their group membership. Discrimination is often used by dominant groups to control opportunities and reduce the challenges from subordinate groups. Social movement → A conscious, concerted, and sustained effort by ordinary people to change (or preserve) some aspect of their society by using extrainstitutional means. “Extrainstitutional means” refers to collective actions undertaken outside existing institutions, like courts and legislatures, although movements may also work through such institutions, at least part of the time. Institutionalization → The process by which a social practice or organization begins to become an institution; the introduction of formal roles and rules in an organized form. Curriculum → The structure of coursework and content of a sequence of courses making up a program of study in a school or school system.
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Socialization → The process by which individuals come to understand the expectations and norms of their groups as well as the various roles they transition into over the life course and how to behave in society or in particular social settings. P ath dependency → The process by which the historical legacies and outcomes of the past impact actors and organizations in the present, making some choices or outcomes appear logical and others illogical. Interest group → An organization established to promote the interests of a group or corporation, especially in Congress or at the level of state governments. CHAPTER 8 DEFINTIONS Market → Any setting in which buyers and sellers engage in exchange. Capitalism → An economic system organized around private property and market exchange. In a capitalist economy, goods that are produced for consumption are distributed via exchange on the market. Socialism → An economic system where the government owns some or most of all productive enterprises and makes decisions about the amount and type of goods and services to be produced.
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