CHEMISTRY 162 Midterm 2 Review

Different than any elements in its group larger size

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Different than any elements in its group Larger size Potential availablitiy of empty valence d orbitals Phosphoric acid (dissolves in water) H2PO3 Phosphorous acid (dissolves in water) (P4O4)
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05:59 Group 6A elements Covalent bonds with other nonmetals Oxygen Most abundant element Ozone O3 ::O=O:-O::: very powerful oxidizer absorbs unltravoilet light Sulfur Recovered by Frasch process Sulfur oxides Monoxide SO2 Oxyacids Sulfurous acid H2SO3 Sulfuric acid H2SO4 Group 7A elements Halogens, NS2NP5 All nonmetals Hydrogen Halides Completely soluble Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluoric acid Oxyacids Group 8A elements Noble gases NS2NP6, compoletely filled orbitals Unreactive
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05:59 Random Tid-bits
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05:59 Adhesive forces between a polar liquid and a given surface are strongest when the  surface is made of a substance that has polar bonds 1 A(with circle above) = 100 pm = 1x10^-8 cm Diamonds Each carbon atom is surrounded by a tetrahedral arrangement of other carbon atoms Stabilized by covalent bonds which are formed by overlapping sp3 hybridized atomic  orbitals Bad conductor, far MO energy levels Closer the gap between filled and empty MO, the better the conductor they are Most important silicon compounds contain Si and O (Silica) Most common glass is Pyrex Positive Hdelta sign= energy absorbed Negative Hdelta sign= energy released Nonvolatile solute reduces the tendency of solvent molecules to escape Solubility constant (Ksp)= concentrations of reactions over products To determine which ions are more soluble, look at the polarity Lowercase “i” indicates the number of ions Moles of particles on solution/ moles of solute dissolved Most abundant element is oxygen, then silicon The bigger the charge on the ion, the bigger lattice energy (Hdelta(lattice)) Hdelta(hyd) = Hdelta(latt) + Hdelta(soln) Hdelta(latt)= q1q2/(r^2)
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05:59 Strong acid=strong electrolyte the Bronsted (or Bronsted-Lowry) definition: an acid is a proton (H+ ion) donor, and a  base is a proton acceptor; the Lewis definition: an acid is an electron acceptor, and a base is an electron donor. When calculating the range of temperatures, add with 100C and subtract from 0C When a nonvolatile substance is added to a volatile substance Vapor Pressure decreases Boiling point increases Freezing point decreases Osmotic pressure increases
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