nonpersonal communication in news story
form about an organization or its products, that is transmitted
through a mass medium at no charge. Publicity is similar to Advertising in that it is a form of nonpersonal communication
through a mass medium about the company or its products. However, unlike advertising, the company does not pay to
have it transmitted, and it cannot always be controlled
; publicity can be good as well as bad. Examples of publicity are
magazine and news stories about new products or changes in an organization.
Sales Promotion -
activity or material that offers added value, or incentive
for a product.
Examples of sales promotions include coupons
, bonuses, and contests used to enhance the sales of a product.
promotion" should not be confused with "promotion." Promotion includes Sales Promotion, as well as Advertising,
Personal Selling, and Publicity.
, used in the context of promotion, is the transmission
Communication process can be broken down into 5 steps
A Source for the Message -
Process begins with a source
. A source is a person, group, or organization that has a meaning
it is trying to share
An Encoded Message-
convert the meaning being conveyed into a series of signs that represent ideas or concepts or
symbols. Usually, an organization will encode the meaning in a combination of words and pictures
. To share meaning, the
signs need to be familiar to the audience; for example, the language should be one that the receiver understands.
A Medium of Transmission -
a coded meaning with the receiver or audience, a source must select a medium of
transmission. Anything that carries
the message from the source to the receiver;
i.e. a person's voice, a letter, television,
source sends an encoded message via a medium of transmission to a receiver.
A Decoded Message -
Receiver then decodes the message, or converts
the signs in the encoded message into concepts
The receiver decodes the message. In the context of the communication process, encoded does not mean using some kind
of secret code. Converting
thoughts and ideas into symbols--
for example, writing an email in plain English to someone--
. When the receiver gets the email, and interprets it to figure out what ideas the source was trying to convey,
this is called decoding.
The Receiver or Audience