BUSINESS
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Lecture four assessment item 1 7 question one one of

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Lecture Four
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ASSESSMENT ITEM 1 7 Question One One of the main reasons why the Soviet Union collapsed was constant aggression from the West. Particularly, the United States was relentless in waging non-military attacks on the Soviet Union. President Ronald Reagan vocally opposed the Soviet Union ever since he stepped into White House, terming them as an evil empire. He went on to heavily spend on military policies such as the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), to nullify the Soviet missile by theorizing their win on nuclear war. As if that is not enough, Reagan made sure the Soviets accrued no oil revenues by isolating them from the rest of the world economy. Other significant events that crumbled the Soviet Union were nationalist movements (Kagan, 2009). The Soviet satellites such as Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, experienced ethnic tension fueled by nationalist movements, which forced Soviet republics to pull away from the Soviet Union. By 1991, Soviet Union had disintegrated. Question Four New challenges to international peace have erupted as nations emerge from Cold War. Since the early 1990s, there has been the rise of nuclear power (Dockrill, 2005). Before the demise of the USSR, the Cold War characterized the world as bipolar. After that, there was no central power that clearly defined superiority as the world became multipolar, with nations independently exerting their authorities. On that note, the Asian economic powerhouses like Iran, Israel and Iraq have continuously advanced their nuclear and biological weapons exploration, challenging the stability of the mutual deterrence principle of the Cold War. Terrorism is yet another serious concern related to the aftermath of Cold War. President Bush’s doctrine endured a fair share of criticism in the manner they handled the War on Terror. It clearly demonstrated a
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ASSESSMENT ITEM 1 8 change of war on a new enemy, with the likes of Al Qaeda and Hamas operating international but existing even within the U.S itself. Question Five The controversy surrounding the influential political theorists Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington, is fundamentally based on their opposing views as regards post-Cold War international relations. Fukuyama's thesis identifies two main elements that will define the time period between the start of the 19th century and onwards. Firstly, government systems will successfully rely on intellectual democracy and secondly, tension in history will be defined by two classes of the controlled and the ones in control (Goh, 2013). Meanwhile, Huntington refutes this system of thought arguing that the 21st century will marked by civilization as an elemental factor as well as the conflicts that arise from it, as opposed to tension between nation states.
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