consumption in this system can be expected to result in growing unemployment and lack of income for the unemployed. Thus, it is difficult to implement neo-Malthusian recommendations of reducing consumption levels in developed countries and achieving steady-state economies. Even less radical conservation policies are often thwarted by this issue, which is still largely unresolved politically. The global economic system is subject to fluctuation and instability. In an economic recession or with a sudden deterioration in the economic situation of a country (for example, due to balance of payment problems), there is a temptation to draw on natural resources, like logging forests more intensely, and to engage in unsustainable harvesting of living natural resources, to tide the country over its difficulties. This can be a source of considerable loss of genetic diversity and of natural areas. Furthermore, exports of living natural resources can be used to finance economic growth. This can obviously be a threat to genetic diversity and is of dubious value if the economic growth proves to be unsustainable. International capital and technology flows, multinational enterprises, devaluation of national currencies, foreign loans and aid can all have an impact on the conservation of natural areas and the maintenance of biodiversity. As discussed previously, they can assist or hinder conservation, depending on the circumstances. Debt-for-nature swaps have been much publicised as a means of easing the foreign debt burden of less developed countries and ensuring greater conservation of nature. But debt-for-nature swaps do have some shortcomings. These swaps and environmentally-dependent aid policies raise the question of who gains from conservation in less developed countries. How are benefits distributed between aid donors and recipients, that is between the developed and the less developed world? Some recipients of environmentally sensitive foreign aid claim that they are being disadvantaged. This possibility and others are examined, using a matrix of alternative international distributions of gains and losses from nature conservation. The spread and the development of the global economic system has increased and is increasing the need for more officially protected areas. Economic globalization is a threat to nature conservation and biodiversity.
- Summer '20
- Dr joseph
- Economics, Global Economic System