Glucagon increases glycemia and insulin reduces it

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Glucagon increases glycemia and insulin reduces it. They are antagonistic pancreatic hormones. Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, thus forming glucose from the breakdown of glycogen. Insulin is the hormone responsible for the entrance of glucose from blood into cells. When glycemia is low, for example, during fasting, glucagon is secreted and insulin is inhibited. When glycemia is high, like after meals, glucagon is inhibited and insulin secretion is increased. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: insulin molecule glucose uptake 36. What are the target organs of insulin and glucagon? Glucagon mainly acts on the liver. In general, insulin acts on all cells. Both also act on the adipose tissue, stimulating (glucagon) and inhibiting (insulin) the use of fatty acids by the energy metabolism (an alternate path of energy metabolism is activated when there is a shortage of glucose).
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37. What are the effects of somatostatin on pancreatic hormonal secretions? Somatostatin inhibits both insulin and glucagon secretions. Diabetes Mellitus Explained 38. What is diabetes mellitus? Diabetes mellitus is the disease caused by the deficient production or action of insulin and, as a result, characterized by a low glucose uptake by cells and a high blood glucose level. 39. What are the three main signs of diabetes? The three main signs of diabetes mellitus are known as the diabetic triad: polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. Polyuria is the excessive elimination of urine; in diabetes, it is caused by reduced water reabsorption in the renal tubules due to the increased osmolarity of glomerular filtrate (caused by excessive glucose). Polydipsia is the exaggerated ingestion of water; the thirst is due to excessive water loss in the urine. Polyphagia is the exaggerated ingestion of food caused by a deficiency in energy generation by glucose-deficient cells. 40. Why do diabetic patients often undergo dietary sugar restriction?
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What are the main complications of diabetes mellitus? Diabetic patients are often advised to ingest less carbohydrates since these substances are broken down into glucose and this molecule is absorbed in the intestines. The goal of dietary sugar restriction is to control glycemia and to maintain it at normal levels. The main complications of diabetes are tissue injuries that occur in various organs caused by chronic high blood osmolarity: in the peripheral nerves (diabetic neuropathy), resulting in sensitivity loss, increased wounds (the person does not feel that the tissue is being wounded and the wound expands) and muscle fatigue; in the kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), causing glomerular lesions that may lead to renal failure; in the retina (diabetic retinopathy), leading to vision impairment and blindness; and in the skin, as a consequence of the neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus is also one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as embolism, myocardial infarction and stroke.
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