Bio Exam Notes Section 2.docx

Evolution supports might makes right books about

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Evolution supports ‘might makes right’ (books about crime don’t encourage crime) 10. Evolution and religion are not compatible (they are different things, religion goes beyond  the natural world) (1) Describe the main conditions required for evolution by natural selection to occur, and explain why genetic variation virtually always exists within a population . Evolution by natural selection: o Individuals display variation within certain traits o Some of this is become of differences in genotypes and phenotypes are heritable (variants called genotypes and associated phenotypes are heritable) o Some heritable traits affect success in reproduction Where does variation come from? o Mutation – ‘gene variation’ changes in the structure of genes from the environment o Sexual Reproduction – mixing of different genes o Genotype and environment interaction – ‘gene expression’ some environments disfavor  the success of certain genes (2) (a) Define natural selection. Does natural selection act on genes, traits or individuals? Explain your answer. (b) Does the definition of evolutionary fitness apply to genes, traits, or individuals? Explain your answer. (A)Natural selection: the failure of certain individuals to leave descendants through  reproduction o Acts on traits, it favours traits that lead to the most descendants (B) Fitness acts on individuals, by definition those individuals who leave more decendants  are more fit. But it  applies  to genes, defined in terms of the number of gene copies  residing in future generations. (3) Explain how morning sickness in pregnant women can be interpreted plausibly, through the ‘consilience of inductions’ as a product of evolution by natural selection. Consilience of inductions:   refers to the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated  sources can "converge" to strong conclusions."
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Why? o Survival – protects mother form consuming dangerous foods that could be toxic o Those who survived and continued to reproduce didn’t consume toxic foods Inductions: - Many plants have evolved biological protection to predators, we as adults are just  evolved enough to counter them - Fetus may not be able to combat these toxins at early stages - Low doses of plant toxins can be harmless to adults but toxic to a fetus - Sickness begins when embryo is most sensitive to toxins, wanes as the embryo's organs  are nearly complete - Women with severe sickness are less likely to birth babies with defects (4) Describe the main hypotheses that have been put forward for the advantages of bipedalism in humans. Bipedalism (+): o Arms free to carry babies and food o Arms free to use tools o Hands free to communicate o Less sun exposure (decrease risk of heat stroke b/c large brains overheats easily) o More efficient over long distances o Improved viewing (5) Describe the main ideas that have been put forward for the early advantages associated with the discovery and use of fire by humans.
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