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deceleration occurs after the peak of the contraction. In most cases the onset, nadir, and recovery of the deceleration usually occurs after the respective onset peak, and end of UC.oprolongeddeceleration"visually apparent abrupt decrease in FHR below baseline that is ≥15 bpm lasting ≥2 minutes but ≤10 minutesosinusoidalpattern"having a visually apparent smooth sine-like wave like undulating pattern in FHR baseline with a cycle frequency of 3-5/min that persists for ≥to 20 minutes!tachycardia"baseline FHR of > 160 bpm lasting 10 minutes or longer !bradycardia"baseline FHR of <110 bpm lasting for 10 minutes or longer !normalFHR"FHR pattern that reflects a favorable physiological response to the maternal fetal environment!abnormal FHR"FHR pattern that reflects an unfavorable physiological response to the maternal fetal environmentModes or types of fetal and uterine monitoring
7!auscultationouse of fetoscope/Doppler to hear the FHR by externally listening without the use of a paper recorderofetoscope "allows practitioner to hear sounds associated with opening/closing of ventricular valves via bone conduction oDoppler "uses ultrasound technology, using sound waves deflected from fetal heart movements#Converts information into a sound that represents cardiac events!palpation of contractionsoassesses for frequency, tone, duration, intensityonurse places fingertips on the fundus of uterus and assess for degree of tension as contractions occurointensity of contractions is measured at peak of the contraction#mild or 1+ feels like tip of nose (easily indented)#moderate or 2+ feels like chin (can slightly indent)#strong or 3+ feels like forehead (cannot indent uterus)oresting tone is measured between contractions and listed as either soft or firm uterine tone!external electronic fetal and uterine monitoringouses ultrasound device to detect FHR and a pressure device to assess uterine activityoexternal EFM detects FHR baseline, variability, accelerations, decelerationsoerratic FHR recordings or gaps on paper recorder may be due to inadequate conduction of US signal displacement of transducer, fetal/maternal movement, inadequate US gel, fetal arrhythmiaocontractions are measured via tocodynamometer; cannot measure pressure/intensityouses fetal scalp electrode/internal scalp electrode that is applied to presenting part of fetus to detect FHRoinvolves using intrauterine pressure catheter (IUPC) placed in the uterine cavity to directly measure uterine contractionsoContraindications "chorioamnionitis, active maternal genital herpes, HIV, conditions that preclude vaginal examsoMay be used due to maternal obesity or lack of progress in labor when quantitative analysis of uterine activity is needed for clinical decision making; treat worsening category II tracingoContractions are measured via an intrauterine pressure catheter "contractions measured in mm Hg oPeak pressure "maximum uterine pressure during a contraction measured with IUPCoResting tone/baseline pressure "