d.Sales Promotion 520: a key element of the promotional mix today; it now accounts for more than $74 billion in annual expenditures. In a recent forecast by ZenithOptimedia, sales promotion expenditures accounted for 18 percentof all promotional spending. The large allocation of marketing expenditures to sales promotion reflects the trend toward integrated marketing communications programs, which often include a variety of sales promotion elements. Selection and integration of the many promotion techniques require a good understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of sales promotion. The two major kinds of sales promotions, consumer-oriented and trade-oriented, are discussed below.Consumer-Oriented Sales PromotionsDirected to ultimate consumers, consumer-oriented sales promotions, or simply consumer promotions,are sales tools used to support a company's advertising and personal selling. A variety of consumer-oriented sales promotion tools may be used, including coupons, deals, premiums, contests, sweepstakes, samples, loyalty programs, point-of-purchase displays, rebates, and product placements (see Figure 18-6).
e.Sample 522: Another common consumer sales promotion is sampling, which is offering the product free or at a greatly reduced price. Often used for new products, sampling puts the product in the consumer's hands. A trial size is generally offered that is smaller than the regular package size. If consumers like the sample, it is hoped they will remember and buy the product. Taco Bell has offered free tacos nationwide several times in the past to encourage customers to try new products. Recently, Taco Bell gave away 1,000,000 free Doritos Locos tacos to guests who placed orders on its mobile ordering app. The taco has become the company's most successful new product. Similarly, Ben & Jerry's offers a complimentary scoop of ice cream on “Free Cone Day.” Some consumers watch for free samples online at sites such as . According to Stacy Fisher, who started trying free samples in college and now blogs about them, free samples are “a great way to try new things and save money.”f.News Conference 526: A second common publicity tool is the news conference. Representatives of the media are allinvited to an informational meeting, and advance materials regarding the content are sent. This tool is often used when new products are introduced or significant changes in corporate structure and leadership are being made.4.Chapter 19:a.Blogs 540: a contraction of “web log”—is a web page that serves as a publicly accessible personal journal and onlineforum for an individual or organization. Companies like Hewlett-Packard and Frito-Lay routinely monitor blogs to
gain insights into customer complaints and suggestions. A wikiis a website whose content is created and edited by the ongoing collaboration of end users—such as generating and improving new-product ideas. They differ in that a blog is a diary that shows a sequential journey while a wiki shows the end result as a single entry.