Module 9-Introduction to Bioethics.docx

This unethical research continued for 40 years in

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discovered in the 1940s they were not offered this treatment. This unethical research continued for 40 years in which several articles about the study were published. No one attempted to stop the research. Finally, a medical reporter learned of the study and the unethical issues were exposed. This even led to President Bill Clinton’s issuance of a public apology. You are going to view a film clip on the experiment and research on Tuskegee, and while you watch the film, answer the following questions: 1. Describe some of the unethical malpractices you think are involved in the study? Does the argument from new knowledge justify these malpractices? 2. What should have been done to assure that participants in the study are not abused? 3. Which procedures are in place today that seeks to prevent unethical practices in research? The Hippocratic Oath is acknowledged to be the basis of the conduct of physicians in their practice of medicine. The Oath requires a new doctor to uphold accepted standards of behavior in dealing with patients and their families by swearing upon a number of healing gods that he will ascribe to a number of professional ethical standards. “ It also binds him to his teacher and his community of physicians with responsibilities similar to everyone. “ ( From the translation of Michal North, National Library of Medicine 2002,in ) 2
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Over the centuries, this Oath has become the standard upon which research involving human participation has been based. Today, one can say that the principles of bioethics have largely been inspired by do no harm implications of the Oath. Activity 2 The Hippocratic Oath and the NAZI Experiments Form 5 groups of 4 members each. These groups will be given a copy of well known research conducted involving human participation that abused their dignity and rights as human persons. The groups will be required to discuss various indications of unethical practices using the Oath of Hippocrates as a yardstick. To date, are you familiar with some malpractices of health care givers? Ethical Principles Due to several lapses and abuses committed in research involving human participants, researchers and health workers became particularly conscious of ethical malpractices and pitfalls in the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research. Because of this truism, several groups and commissions were organized to intensely look at guidelines and principles involving human subjects. In 1978, the Belmont Report was issued which outlined the basic principles for all research involving human participants to include respect for persons, beneficence and justice. In 1979, the principle of nonmaleficence was added. Making ethical decisions and justification using these principles or sometimes known as ethical principlism without involving the use of a theory or a formal decision making model have been criticized as resulting in a linear way of doing ethics. It has been contended that such a determination of moral decisions glosses over the nuances present in relationship-based situations. Nevertheless, principlism
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  • Spring '10
  • Johnson
  • Ethics , Beauchamp

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