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-Example: Scratching an insect bite relieves itchPunishmentOccurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.- Positive Punishment: A behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior.Example: Child picks nose in class, teacher reprimandsNegative Punishment: A response behavior is followed immediately by removal of a stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of the stimulus, that decreases the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions.Example: Kids fight over toy, parent takes it away.Function-based Diagnostic codes—what they are, how to determine which it is4 Major Categories: - (1.0) Direct access (DA)- (2.0) Socially mediated access (SMA)- (3.0) Direct Escape (DE)- 4.0 (Socially mediated escape (SME)steps for identification of replacement behavior options
4 Replacement Behavior Options:1. Alternate Direct Access Form Option: Identify an alternate, more acceptable form of behavior (one that is not inappropriate or dangerous) that directly produces the same specific reinforcer.2. Access and (request) option: Identify a requesting behavior (Mand) that would allow staff to mediate such a request or choice by providing the client with a more appropriate setting (area) in which two engage in the problem behavior.3. Omission Training Option (Differential rein. of all other behaviors, or DRO): Identify a length of time that you want the individual not to perform the target direct access behavior, that is, the non-occurance of behavior for a set time period, contingent upon which provides access to the specific reinforcer ( either by request or by direction of staff)4. Premack Contingency Option (engagement in lower probability behaviors as the contingency for access to a specific reinforcer): Identify aregimen of tasks that, when completed, allows the client to access the specific reinforcer.