Sum of all barriers to engaging in the recommended

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sum of all barriers to engaging in the recommended behavior, including monetary costs and non-monetary costs such as time, effort, inconvenience, discomfort, social disapproval, etc. Research suggests that higher levels of self-efficacy and response
9 efficacy and lower levels of perceived cost can produce significantly greater changes in protection motivation and persuasion (Floyd et al., 2000; Milne et al., 2000). According to theory (Rogers and Prentice-Dunn, 1997) as well as empirical data (Milne et al., 2000), the coping variables (response efficacy, self-efficacy, and costs) have a higher impact on persuasion measures in comparison to the threat variables (vulnerability and severity). Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1983) has been widely used to help create social marketing campaigns (Eppright et al., 2002; Lawrence, 1995). Indeed, a review of the research using PMT (Rogers and Prentice-Dunn, 1997) shows that numerous studies have tested either the threat appraisal and/or the coping appraisal in a wide variety of health contexts with public policy implications such as change in lifestyle (e.g., smoking, regular exercise, stress reduction), change in sexual behavior (e.g., AIDS-preventive actions), or change in healthcare practices (e.g., inoculation against a virus, breast self-examination, mammography), among others. Correlation studies, as well as studies using experimental manipulations of PMT variables (particularly response efficacy and self-efficacy), often produce main effects on intentions (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993). Indeed, two meta-analytic reviews of 65 and 27 studies respectively representing over 20 health areas which included approximately 37,700 participants (Floyd et al., 2000 and Milne et al., 2000) demonstrated that, in general, increases in severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy facilitated adaptive intentions and behaviors. In addition, two recent reviews of social marketing campaigns in the area of preventing and controlling obesity as well as limiting smoking (Cismaru and Lavack, 2007a; 2007b) show PMT as a theoretical framework which can be successfully used to create persuasive social marketing campaigns.
10 Consider the following example of a social marketing campaign aiming to eliminate drunk driving, which illustrates use of PMT principles. The “Tie One on for Safety” public awareness project, running for more than 20 years, asks Americans to tie a silver ribbon to their vehicles as a symbol of the driver’s pledge to drive safe, sober, and buckled up ( - Program.aspx?program=10 ). The campaign’s fact sheet shows statistics describing how many people are involved in drunk driving crashes and how many are injured or die as a result (i.e., “Each year, nationally, more than 1,000 people typically die between Thanksgiving through New Year’s in drunk driving crashes”). This information is meant to increase perceived vulnerability and severity for the reader. The fact sheet posted on the website provides specific recommendations about how to host a party responsibly, and what it means to designate a non-drinking driver before partying begins (i.e., “Being the

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