•On day 9, he only completes one module.•On day 10, he does not complete a module.
What do we know?•Not much, just yet.•Looking at the data from another student may help.•Look at the graph on page 62.
Examining Student 2’s Graph•This student shows the same dip in work completion on days 9 and 10. •The data also shows that Student 2 could not be working on the same modules as Student 1 because he completed more modules on days 1-8.
A possibility•Given that both students demonstrated a drop in module completion on the same days, it is a possibility that something was happening on those days to influence their work.•Looking at the two graphs and seeing the similarities gives clues.
Interpreting the Data•Frequency graphs•make it _____________ to see trends.•If the amount of work completed increases or decreases over time, it is easier to see when the data are graphed.•ESPECIALLY if the change is _____________________. •See the 2nd graph on page 62.
A few observations•The graph on page 62 shows•a more gradual increase•a lot more ________________ in the number of modules completed each day
Cumulative Frequency Graphs•Definition•a graph in which each data point indicates the ____________ number of times the behavior has occurred up to that point.
Cumulative Frequency Graph•Shows the total number of times the behavior has occurred during that _______________________ periods.
An Example•Let’s look at the graph on page 64 of your text.•It’s the same data from the previous graphs.
Same Data/Two Graphs•Simple frequency - shows how much was completed on a specific day•Cumulative frequency - shows the ________________ amount of work completed as of a specific day
Days 9 & 10 - Simple Frequency Graph•Remember from simple frequency graphs:•On days 9 and 10, the student completed one/no modules.•On the graph, it shows up as a dip/_______________ slope of the line.
Days 9 & 10 - Cumulative Graph•There is ________ dip/downward slope.•The line progresses slightly upward and then levels off (stays straight). •A horizontal line on a CG means the behavior did not occur at all.•A straight line that trends upward means the behavior is occurring at a steady rate.
And if the line goes down?•It means someone made a ____________.•With a CG, the line can ___________ go down, because you are always adding the current day’s data to the previous data. •Example: The student cannot complete minus two modules.
The Beauty of Graphs•Allows us to see the effects of variables on behavior. •For example, if you are trying to solve a behavior problem and you implement a plan, you can see if the rate goes up or down over time. •It’s a more _________________ way to evaluate the intervention.
Evaluating Interventions•It’s different in ABA.•Many psychological studies involve comparing two or more groups of people.•Each group is exposed to a different condition.