Why are biological males and biological females often

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Why are biological males and biological females often so different in their apparent functioning and preferences? COERCION how extensive could this be? SOCIALIZATION Unconscious development of self Learning – rational development of self Conditioning/social learning Direct instruction and Propaganda Media Religion Culture Marketing
Gender is a Property of the Social Order Gender is bestowed on the person, assimilated into the “self.” Gender learning takes place through interaction over all phases of the social development of the person, as he/she acquires a “self.” In the social division of labor that has evolved to sustain human individuals, families communities, tribes, nations, species, gender has played a central role. Individuals assigned a gender role on the basis of biological sex Individuals acquire a gendered “self” as they learn the required roles – often through conflict between self and more powerful others, Effective learning of the role and performance of the gendered self obscures its acquired and social character – it’s “natural.”
Masculinity and Femininity Are Products of a Gender System They are repertoires of thought, belief, and behavior conventionally assigned to biological males and females, linked to the roles that members of those biological categories have come to play in social life. Society engenders the gendered “self.” Masculinity and Femininity vary in time and space, in the ways they are defined and performed.
Heidi Hartmann and Patriarchy Division of Labor by Sex is key to women’s subordination Sex segregation and sex-typing of work in household and society is key Over historical time and social development relations between the genders have grown MORE UNEQUAL Modern, rational market institutions have incorporated early sex divisions BECAUSE THEY OFFER MEN SYSTEMATIC BENEFITS in Household, Economy, and Civil Society PATRIARCHY: a hierarchical system in which Men control the labor and activity of women and children, and more advantaged men control the activity of less powerful and advantaged men. Division of labor by sex: A. Weakens women’s labor market position – less pay, unstable work B. Pressures women to marry C. Women work for men in household and lose opportunity in economy D. Men gain competitive advantage from undervaluation of women’s work and women’s limited options in the labor market Women’s and Men’s socialization and development have strategically normalized assumptions of patriarchy about individuals
Why so much attention to sex roles, gender, and their development? Sex differences in nature might be “value neutral.” But in society gender is an attribute of a self located in a hierarchical system of differentiation.

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