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Psychological Operations-We also use credibility to gain the acceptance of those on the other side of a conflict in which we are participating.
-Psychological Operations are when soldiers give information to civilians on the other side of a conflict, in order to bring about an end to enemy incursions and to gain the trust of people who are on the other side. -A retired lieutenant saw the importance of credibility by being as truthful as possible. Truth Chapter 6Ethics and PropagandaWhat is Ethics-Ethics is a systematic study aimed at discerning which rules and forms of thought and behaviour will contribute to a better existence and which will not. Morality of Lying-In the history of morality, lying has been viewed as bad by St- Augustine, St- Thomas Aquinas, and Kant. -Others argue that lying may be the right and even the morally obligatory course of action to take under exceptional circumstances.-St Thomas Aquinas:Like Augustine, Aquinas holds that the greater the good intended, the more the sinfulness of lying is diminished. He says that the wrongfulness of lies has to do when it involves God and charity towards your neighbour. -Immanuel Kant:Immanuel Kant shares with Augustine an uncompromising view about the wrongfulness of lying, although he locates the wrongfulness formally in the violation of the principle of universalizability. If you lie, and take as a maxim that lying is all right to get out of a tough spot, then universalizing this maxim implies that anyone in a tough spot can lie to get out of it.-Grotius:Grotius grounded the wrongness of lying in the violation of the right of another to the truth. He says that if you do not know the truth about something, and you are fed falsehoods, then your judgement will not be sound. Contemporary Discussion: Bok and Nyberg-Bok defines a lie as, “Any intentionally deceptive message that is stated”. -The wrongness of lying comes from the following:1.There is a societal need for a minimum of trust, and that lies tend to erode this. 2.When you give false information, you tend to restrict the freedom of choice from others. 3.The liar wants to be believed, but lying undermines the foundation for credibility. 4.As with Augustine, Bok sees that lying in one matter will end up with lying in others.
Misleading Without Actually Lying1.Ignoring:One powerful form of directing minds is the systematic non- attention by the mass media to things that deserve attention.Example: in order to ensure the defeat of a candidate for the governor of California, the Los Angeles Times ignored him and his political movement by not bothering to cover his public speaking engagements. 2.Presupposing:The principle that in our communications, it is tacitly presupposed that people will give as much information of the right kind and that is relevant and perspicacious as will be helpful to the person with whom we are communicating.