Renaissance • Dante Alighieri – search for an ideal vernacular • Ramon Llull – Ars Magna – devising a perfect language that would persuade infidels of the truth of Christianity • Musical languages from the Renaissance were tied up with mysticism, magic and alchemy, sometimes also referred to as the language of the birds (Solresol is one such). • Bacon, Descartes and Leibniz, all proposed international languages
Auxiliary Languages: Esperanto • 1887: Introduced by Dr. L.L. Zamenhof • No concentrated area where it’s spoken, but speakers are everywhere— between 100,000 and 2,000,000 • Does not replace other languages—acts as a second common language between people. • Universal language • Can supposedly be learned in much less time than other languages. • Is politically unbiased. • He did not really make an artificial language, but a sort of synthesis of our principal modern languages. He chose for the vocabulary of his language the most international roots, all very Latin and Germanic – Telefono, telegrafo, teatre, arto, muziko, onklo, sukcesi, marklo – Link: many on you tube
Principles • To render the study of the language so easy as to make its acquisition mere play to the learner. • To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with persons of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not; in other words, the language is to be directly a means of international communication. • To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of mankind, and disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, and en masse, to learn and use the proposed language as a living one, and not only in last extremities, and with the key at hand.
Esperanto Phonetics • A, “father” • B • C, “bits” • Ĉ, “church” • D • E, “get” • F • G, “go” • Ĝ, “jet” • H, “loch” • Ĥ • I, “machine” • J, “yes” • Ĵ, “measure” K L M N O, “go” P R, “burrito" S, “said” Ŝ, “shed” T U, “boot” Ŭ, “water” V Z
Esperanto Grammar • Every letter has only one sound and is always pronounced. • Accent is always on the next-to-last syllable (penultimate). • Vowels are never diphthongized. • Parts of speech are formed by adding endings to words: – “o” = noun… instruisto (teacher) – “a” = adjective… nova (new) – “j” = plural… Inteligentaj personoj (intelligent people) – “n” = direct object… Esperanto havas facilaj n regulojn (Esperanto has easy rules) – Past tense = -is • No irregularities
Esperanto Grammar • No inflectional endings for cases Infinitive Present Past Future Imperative Conditional To see Sees Saw Will see See! Would see -i -as -is -os -u -us Vidi Vidas Vidis Vidos Vidu vidus
Noun Subject Object Singular -o -on Plural -oj -ojn Adjective Subject Object Singular -a -an Plural -aj -ajn
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- Spring '16
- Ravi Banavar
- Constructed language