22 hingson rw zha w and weitzman er magnitude of and

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22 Hingson, R.W.; Zha, W.; and Weitzman, E.R. Magnitude of and trends in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18–24, 1998–2005. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (Suppl. 16):12–20, 2009. PMID: 19538908. 23 Hingson, R.; Heeren, T.; Winter, M.; et al. Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26:259–279, 2005. PMID: 15760289 24 Blanco, C.; Okuda, M.; Wright, C. et al. Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry 65(12):1429–1437, 2008. PMID: 19047530 25 Wechsler, H.; Dowdall, G.W.; Maenner, G.; et al. Changes in binge drinking and related problems among American college students between 1993 and 1997: Results of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study. Journal of American College Health 47(2):57–68, 1998. PMID: 9782661 26 Stratton, K.; Howe, C.; Battaglia, F.; Eds. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, 1996. 27 May, P.A.; Gossage, J.P.; Kalberg, W.O.; et al. Prevalence and epidemiologic characteristics of FASD from various research methods with an emphasis on recent in-school studies. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 15(3):176–192, 2009. PMID:19731384 NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism • 301.443.3860
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28 May, P.A.; Keaster, C.; Bozeman, R.; et al. Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in a Rocky Mountain Region City. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 155:118–127, 2015. PMID: 26321671 29 Estimated liver disease deaths include deaths with the underlying cause of death coded as alcoholic liver disease (K70), liver cirrhosis, unspecified (K74.3–K74.6, K76.0, K76.9), liver cancer (C22), or other liver diseases (K71, K72, K73, K74.0–K74.2, K75, and K76.1–K76.8). Number of deaths from Multiple Cause of Death Public-Use Data File, 2015 ( ). Alcohol-attributable fractions (AAFs) from CDC Alcohol-Related Disease Impact ( . aspx, Accessed 5/23/17). Prevalence of alcohol consumption from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2015, for estimating indirect AAFs for liver cancer. 30 Yoon, Y.H., and Chen, C.M. Surveillance Report #105: Liver Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States: National, State, and Regional Trends, 2000–2013 . Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 2016. Available at: . Accessed 11/7/16. 31 Singal, A.K.; Guturu, P.; Hmoud, B.; et al. Evolving frequency and outcomes of liver transplantation based on etiology of liver disease. Transplantation 95(5):755–760, 2013. PMID: 23370710 (Please note: The “almost 1 in 3” figure aggregates the total number of transplants necessitated by alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic liver disease plus hepatitis C virus infection, and 40 percent of transplants necessitated by hepatocellular carcinoma.) 32 National Cancer Institute. Alcohol Consumption , November 2015 update. Available at: . Accessed 9/19/16.
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