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lot when reproducing, if they choose to paternally invest for a child, his reproductive success will decrease. (ex: “I’ve seen you around experiment”) •Female, in mammals, agrees to mate with male oInvestment in gestation and lactation obecomes very vulnerable because male can leave and still get 50% of reproductive investment and not parental investment 22. Mating systems. What are they? Why is variance in reproductive success very important? A: The mating systems include polyandry, polygyny, and monogamy. Polygyny is when one male bonds with multiple females thus exhibiting high variance in male reproductive success and low variance in female reproductive success. There is one winner and many losers such as the elephant seals. Polyandry is when one female bonds with multiple males
thus increasing high variance in female reproductive success and low variance in male reproductive success. Monogamy is a union in which an individual has one spouse throughout their lifetime and exemplifies low variance in reproductive success for both males and females such as in penguins. •elephant seals 24. What is the difference/relationship between sexual dimorphism and mating system? A:The relationship between sexual dimorphism and mating systems is that with greater sexual dimorphism comes greater polygamy. Polygamy is when an individual has more than two partners. When a male has more than two partners it is considered polygyny and when a female has more than two partners it is considered polyandry. With sexual dimorphism, the sexes differ in size or appearance which causes male-male competition and sexual selection. For example, in elephant seals the male is larger than the female which causes male-male competition for territory and women. The winners get access to mating with numerous female elephant seals thus exemplifying a polygamous mating system. Conversely, the less sexual dimorphism there is, the greater monomorphism as seen in birds. For example, they are indistinguishable and share similar physical features that reduces male-male competition and increases equal parental investment. This in turn leads to monogamy in which an individual has one spouse. 25. Why do we expect humans to be symmetrical? Why aren’t we perfectly symmetrical? Is symmetry related to fitness? Give example. A: We don’t have left and right side genes. We have genes for structures therefore the L & R side should look exactly the same. If they don’t, that means instructions went wrong àgenes or environment we grew up in are not so good. 26. Nutriton. Are all proteins created equal? Fats? Carbohydrates?
A: They are not all created equal. Proteinsare sequence of amino acids and are chief building blocks of life. They make up our bones and muscles and carry oxygen from one place to another. They contain hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. They vary because there are 20 amino acids that can make up a protein thus causing a unique structure and chemical behavior for each. Carbohydrates