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Classification and phylogenetic reconstruction

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Classification and Phylogenetic Reconstruction Taxonomists Konrad von Gesner John Ray Carl von Linné (Linnaeus) - Systema Naturae - Binomial nomenclature - Definitions, diagnosis What is the difference between Taxonomy and Systematics? - Taxon (taxa) Primate classification Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Suborder: Anthropoidea Infraorder: Catarrhini (old world primates); Platyrrhini (new world primates)
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Superfamily: Hominoidea (Lesser apes, great apes, and humans) Family: Hominidae (Great apes and humans) Subfamily: Homininae (humans and their closest fossil relatives) Genus: Home Species: sapiens Phylogenetic Relationships Closeness of relatedness: how create hypothetical model of evolutionary relationships among living species? Cladogram - Monophyletic group/clade - Sister taxa - Hypothetical common ancestor Primitive vs. derived features Morphocline Fossil and Living Primates What features are shared by all living primates? (handout and class discussion Plesiadapiformes Middle to Late Paleocene How are they similar to ‘primates of modern aspect’, how do they differ? Prosimians Handout and lecture (coming Tuesday) What are derived characteristics unique to prosimians? Adapidae (Middle to Late Eocene) Lemuridae, Lorisidae, Galagidae, Daubentonia Themes from Recitation: Cell Division -steps of mitosis -what are they called? -what happens in each stage? -steps of meiosis -what are they called? -what happens in each stage? -the source of variation: crossing over (prophase I) -what are the differences between mitosis and meiosis? -stage differences -product differences (sex vs body/autosomal cells, hapoid vs diploid, identical or not?, cyclical or not?) -gene linkage, sex linkage DNA and Protein Synthesis
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-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) -in the nucleus -3 parts: sugar, phosphate unit, nitrogenous base -A+T, G+C (complementary base pairs) -double helix -genes, chromosomes -functions: replication, protein synthesis -replication: semi-conservative process, creates 2 identical daughter strands -RNA (ribonucleic acid) -different sugar from DNA -U instead of T -Proteins -amino acids polypeptide chains proteins -functions: structural & functional -synthesis occurs in ribosomes -nucleus: DNA mRNA (transcription). mRNA ribosome. tRNA brings in complementary amino acids (translation). Amino acids proteins. Population Genetics -describe populations statistically -conditions for successful reproduction -conditions for genetic equilibrium (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium) -calculating allele and genotype frequencies
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